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Bone Structure

by: Melanie Queener

Bone Structure Bio 3310

Melanie Queener
Anatomy and Physiology I
Dr. Ray Larsen

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About this Document

Describes the different shapes of bone along with the two major types; spongy and compact. Begins to explain bone formation as well.
Anatomy and Physiology I
Dr. Ray Larsen
Class Notes
Compact, Spongy, Marrow, Flat, Long Bone
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Queener on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 3310 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Ray Larsen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/15
Bone Structure Bone Shapes Long short at irregular sesamoid Flat Bones two layers of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone 0 Outer surface periosteum o Diploe spongy layer in cranium I absorbs shock exibility I marrow spaces lined with endosteum Long Bones 0 Diaphysis long central shaft I Compact bone 0 Epiphysis peripheral ends I Mostly spongy bone I Filled with red marrow juvenile I Capped by cartilage o Metaphysis middle area I Between diaphysis and epiphysis I Epiphyseal plate 0 Hyaline cartilage 0 Growth zone 0 Articular Cartilage ends of bone I Smooth surface for motion 0 Periosteum covers majority of bone I 2 layers 0 Outer dense irregular CT 0 Inner cells I Nourishment I Attaching ligaments and tendons I Protection 0 Medullary Cavity inside I Filled with marrow o Adipose tissue Blood Supply 0 Diaphysis and Metaphysis serviced from medullary cavity 0 Epiphysis is serviced from the outside 0 Periosteum is also serviced from inside Bone Tissue extracellular matrix surrounding widely separated cells 0 Composite material polymer and ceramic 0 Matrix I 25 water I 25 collagen exibility I 50 crystallized mineral salts 0 About 85 calcium phosphate I Deposition calcification Pathologies o Osteogenesis Imperfecta I Genetic defect in collagen I 120000 live births I Bones fracture easily I Spinal curvature I Discoloration of Sclera I Poor muscle tone I Hearing loss bones in ear break I Skeletal dental deformities I Easily broken bones I Growth disturbances I Lack of calcium I Bowed bones Vitamin D 0 Complicated by lack of dietary calcium 0 Lack of adequate nutrition sunlight 0 Environmental mismatch 0 Cultural practices Cells 0 Osteogenic stem cells gt Osteoblast grows synthesizes bone tissue gt Osteocyte mature version maintain o Osteoclast breaks down bone tissue Compact vs Spongy bone 0 Spongy trabecular I Red marrow young I Rapidly remodels I Lamellae are arranged in a lattice of thin columns called trabeculae I Spaces makes bones lighter between trabeculae I Trabeculae supports and protect red bone marrow I Constant osteoblast and osteoclast activity 0 Remodeling 0 Compact dense I Lamellar layers of bone 0 Haversian formation of osteons 0 Circular fromation 0 Slower remodeling 0 Bone Marrow I Soft tissue that occupies marrow cavity I Red Marrow 0 Produces blood cells 0 Children 0 Adults mostly adipose yellow marrow 0 Skull vertebrae pelvic girdle ribs sternum humerus and femur Bone Formation Ossification process of making bone Occurs o Embryo 0 Until adulthood Growth 0 Remodeling 0 Repair of fractures Embryo o Inramembraneous Ossification I Flat bone of the skull and mandible are formed this way I Steps 0 Ossification center develops 0 Calcification occurs 0 Formation of trabeculae o Periosteum development 0 Creates bone out of almost nothing 0 Endochondrial Ossification I Replacement of cartilage by bone I Most of the bones in the body are formed this way 0 Including long bones I Steps 0 Cartilage 0 Growth of cartilage 0 Development of ossification center 0 Calcification and blood vessels 0 Development of medullary cavity 0 Secondary ossification center 0 Articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate form


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