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Week 3 Notes

by: Hayley Lecker

Week 3 Notes BIOL 1306/1106

Hayley Lecker
GPA 3.42
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi

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About this Document

This week of notes covers only the lectures as no additional chapters seemed to be covered.
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/10/15
Biology Week 3 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu Lecture Notes for the Week Lecture 4 Biological species concept A group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups Morphological species concept A species distinguished from others only by its morphology Operational taxonomic unit An operational species definition using percent DNA sequences similarity typically from sequencing of conserved genes such as the ribosomal 16S gene A typical cutoff would be 97 Lineage species concept A branch on the tree of life which has a history that starts at a speciation event and ends either at extinction or another speciation event Reproductive isolation and reproductive barriers Prezygotic affects behavior prior to fertilization Barriers habitat isolation temporal isolation behavioral isolation mechanical isolation gamete isolation Postzygotic reduces survival or fertility of offspring Barriers zygote mortality hybrid sterility F2 sterility Allopatric A new species formed while geographically isolated from parent population Sympatric without geographical isolation a new species forming next to parent population Adaptive radiation A period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow for them to fill different ecological roles in their communities The powerpoint from the teacher includes Darwin s finches as an example of this as well as cichlid fish It is estimated 99 of species are extinct and the average species lifespan is about 10 million years Other species problems are listed below Ellilher slpeciiies cnceprts edit Ecclcgical species A set cit cirganisms adapted td a particular set cit reseurces callei hcnv reseurces are divided up tend tci prdduce these clustelrsl l l Reprcd uc tive species T we drganlsms that are able tci reprcd uce naturally tci prcd uce fc Spec E jcitatiep deeded lsclaticn species A set cit actually cir pctentially interbreeding pcipu latiens This is g results cit breeding experiments dcine in arti cial cclnditldns maynt reference tci natural pcipu latinns quot39l fll iI iiiimam Genetic species Based l39l similarity cit BHA cit individuals cir pcpulatlens Technigl chesicn species Mdst inclusive pcpulatldn cit individuals having the pctential fcir pl pdpulatldns can hybrid iae successfully they are still distinct ccihe Evcluticnarily signi cant unit Esulj An evdlutidnarilyr signi cant unit is a pcpulatldn cut cirganisms that Spec E jcitatiep deeded Phenetic species Based l39l phenetics Micrcspecies A species with very little genetic variability usually cine that reprci Heccgniticn species Based l39l shared reprdductive systems including mating behale Matereccgniticn species A grciup cit cirganlsms that are ltnclwn t reccgniae cine ancther a reprcd uctive islzllatldnlm39f m Emmi Earth s Geological Time Scale Earth s Geological History Part 2 TABLE ZIZ neunva nus span ERA PERIOD ONSET MAJOR EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE Cenozoic Quaternary 18 mya Humans evolve many large mammals become 39 Tertiary 65 mya Diversification of birds mammals flowering plal Cretaceous 145 mya Dinosaurs continue to diversify flowering plants sify mass extinction at end of period z76 c Mesozoic Jurassic 200 mya Diverse dinosaurs radiation of rayfinned fishes Triassic 251 mya Early dinosaurs first mammals marine inverteb first flowering plants mass extinction at and c z65 of species disappear c Permian 297 mya Reptiles diversify amphibians decline mass ex1 period 96 of species disappear g Carboniferous 359 mya Extensive fern forests first reptiles insects clii E Paleozoic Devonian 416 mya Fishes diversify first insects and amphibians rT end of period 275 of species disappear Silurian 444 mya Jawless fishes diversify first rayfinned fishes r colonize land Ordovician 488 mya Mass extinction at end of period 275 of spec Cambrian 542 mya Most animal phyla present diverse photosynthe 600 mya Ediacaran fauna 15 bya Eukaryotes evolve several animal phyla appear Precambrian 38 bya Origin of life prokaryotes flourish 45 bya It is important to look at the left side as it gives perspective to how long each section is Important areas to note are the mass extinction around 488mya 416mya297mya 251 mya and 145mya The chart below shows this graphically with peaks In the PowerPoint there was also a chart that showed the sea levels and mass extinction correlation this tended to be the case when the sea level were low There were a few outliers such as in 443mya when sea levels were quite high Marine extinction intensity during the Phanerozolc 60 cm S D P Tr iPquot N 542 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Millions of years ago Origins of Life It is presumed that a primordial soup of times was the beginnings of life They believe this occurred in deep ocean sea vents because this could provide warmth The theory is that organic compounds began life which in turn increased in complexity to macromolecules and finally protocells Multicellularity was seen 1218 billion years ago these organisms had higher complexity and variation They evolved many times The ediacaran biota about 600 million years old is the first fossil we have on date Up until the Cambrian times the Precambrian era did not have many species however come 542mya there was an explosion of different species this is called Cambrian Radiation many of the species that did survive would give rise to the species we know today The area where we can find a lot of fossils of species that did not make the cut is in the Burgess Shale were 20 to 30 arthropods are unable to be placed into any modern group these species lost to us When the fossils from the Burgess Shale were first uncovered many were classified into modern groups but later reclassified as they were found to not fit any modern group First colonial First cyanobacteria photo First synthetic fossils eukaryotes of multi cellular Fll St animals oceans F39r3t Origin of multi Formation Origin photo First cellular of Earth of life synthesis eukaryotes eukaryotes L BILLIONS I T T T OF YEARS Hadean Archean Proterozoic Phan mzoic AGO I I l 4 3 2 1 MILLIONS Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quaternary 0F YEARS I l l l l 500 400 300 200 100 Present PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 1810 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Phylogenetics The study of evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms or their genes Taxonomy A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life Taxon A named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification There are five kingdoms Plantae plants Fungi Animalia animals Protista eukaryotes and Monera prokaryotes Each kingdom is then broken down into smaller groups the table on the next page is an example of the panther s breakdown Eukarya 1 E 1 E3 Klngdom n Animalia D Chordata a Mammalia Felidae Panthera Panthera pardus Copyright 0 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benpamin Cummings As you can see it has a Domain then the Kingdom and each class gets smaller and smaller until we have its name A B Clade A monophyletic group made up of an ancestor and all its desendents Cladogram A branching diagram used showing evolutionary relationships among organisms Example to the right A lineage is ancestors and its descendant population this is usually shown on a time scale When a single lineage divides into two it is called a node or split as a lineage continues to spilt it forms a tree The common ancestor forms the root of the tree Sister taxa Two phylogenetic groups that are each other s closest relatives Monophyletic Describing a group that consists of an ancestor and all of its descendants Paraphyletic Describing a group that consists of an ancestor and some but not all of its descendants Polyphyletic Describing a group that contains multiple lineages not linked by a common ancestor Polytomy An unresolved branch point in a phylogenetic tree in which the evolutionary relationships amongst the descendant taxa are not clear Outgroup A species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is closely related to a target group under study but known to have diverged before the members of the target group Molecular clock A method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates Prmosmmeg V m Echinoderms IMH i L lili Il w m A i i r 2008 Leonard Eisenberg H I IV ks FISI I If 2le h W All rights reserved L quot Cuelacanth FlawJun i a Sponges y l Lungfish Amphlhlans Fuin i W l g Amoebas 39 ktl U Red Algae w i m Mi i h l I39 W lPlants l 4 g 1 my 39 i 7 kl l39 l x W 39 39 TBS L1 i xrmu Eukaryotes M l Mammals 39 39 l Archaea r w x y r l a r 7 r r 7 39 7 7 1 0M Ruvt E Bacteria r 7 EL 7 r r 39 r j 11 7 i 7 i 7 it E w 397 r 7 Earth Birth E a i lerlhuls Jana Today 65 200 250 370 440 542 700 1m 2m 3m Millions of Years Ago 3m 2m 1m m 542 440 370 250 200 65 Today All the major and many ofthe minor living branches of life are shown on this diagram lbnt only a few of those that have gone extinct are shown Example Dinosaurs extinctm 93mm Lwquot i v quot 39n El WNW In class we looked at the possible origin of head lice based on the human and chimp lineage divergence It was find out that chimp lice and human head lice lived 6 million years ago around the divergence of the chimp and human lineages We next examined the pubic lice the common ancestor between head lice and pubic is 12 million years ago so it wasn t related closely with the divergence of human and chimp So we looked at other possibilities and came to conclusion that pubic lice are most related to gorilla lice which shared an ancestor of 34 million years ago The following two examples show these findings L Host 5mm Evil M r Far ire Dupxiicatim H I F er 39i miuehumanue y y 39I39 Far it39e Extinutipn 395 NW Hakim Hugh Harm 13 Millquot EMT 1 F erfi miue snhae i Para Fritlme erljiiae Emilia F eri39i nifn his was E39W ME fair rst


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