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Psych Ch. 5 Notes

by: Kristen Pruett

Psych Ch. 5 Notes Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

Ch. 5 Development Through the Lifespan
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Ch. 5  Development Through the Lifespan    Developmental Psych Major Issues  ­ developmental Psychology ­ examines physical, cognitive, and social development  across lifespan  ­ Nature and Nurture  ­ Continuity and stages  ­ stability and change  Prenatal Development and the Newborn  ­ conception  ­ women born with all eggs they will ever have  ­ men begin producing sperm during puberty and continue throughout life  ­ sperm eat away protective layer of egg  ­ one sperm enters egg and blocks out others  ­ nuclei of sperm and egg fuse  ­ Prenatal Development  ­ Zygote ­ fertilized egg  ­ 10 days post fertilization ­ attach to uterine wall  ­ Embryo ­ from about 2 weeks after fertilization through second month   ­ formed from inner cells of zygote; outer cells of zygote make placenta  ­ Fetus ­ 9 weeks after conception to birth   ­ Teratogens ­ harmful agents, such as chemicals or viruses, that can reach the  embryo or fetus during development   ­ Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) ­ physical and cognitive abnormalities in children  caused by pregnant mothers heavy alcohol use  ­ The competent Newborn  ­ reflexes  ­ when you drop a baby it spreads it arms out   ­ habituation ­ decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation  ­ to study visual preference  ­ to study categorization  ­ social responsiveness  ­ Physical Development  ­ infancy and childhood  ­ brain development   ­ pruning is when you get rid of unused synaptic connections  ­ brain and maturation and infant memory   ­ infantile amnesia ­ finding that we have relatively few memories  before 3rd birthday  ­ hippocampus and frontal lobes develop into adolescence  ­ 2­month olds show evidence of learning ­ kick to activate mobile   ­ unconscious of stored information about unused native childhood  language  ­ adolescence  ­ transition period from childhood to adulthood   ­ starts with sexual maturation  ­ ends with independence in young­adulthood  ­ puberty: period of sexual maturation; become capable of reproducing   ­ primary sex characteristics: body structures that make sexual  reproduction possible  ­ secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics   ­ adulthood  ­ much wider variation in development compared to earlier stages  ­ early/young adulthood ­ twenties and thirties  ­ middle adulthood ­ to age 65  ­ changes in middle adulthood  ­ physical vigor influenced by physical activity level  ­ late adulthood ­ age 65 to death  ­ changes in later adulthood  ­ telomeres: production influenced by smoking, obesity, and  stress  ­ general decline in sensory abilities  ­ ex. elderly might think their food tastes bland  ­ immune system weakens, but build­up of antibodies help  fight infections  ­ brain areas responsible for memory atrophy  ­ deterioration in parts of the brain responsible for  memory   ­ physical exercise beneficial to physical and mental abilities  Cognitive Development   ­ cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and  communicating    ­ infancy and childhood  ­ assimilation: interpreting new ideas in terms of existing schemas  ­ accommodation: adapting current schemas to incorporate new information  *Table 5.1 ­ know Piaget’s stages of cognitive development  ­ adulthood  ­ best memory in early adulthood  ­ depends on type of memory  ­ older adults have difficulty with prospective memory   ­ older adults have good memory for meaningful information   ­ older adults memory for skills decline less than for verbal information  Social Development  ­ infancy and childhood  ­ origins of attachment   ­ attachment ­ emotional connection to another person   ­ body contact ­ not necessarily nourishment   ­ familiarity  ­ critical period ­ optimal period in early life when exposure to  certain stimulus leads to normal development   ­ imprinting ­ process in which certain animals form attachments   ­ attachments Differences      mother present  when mother leaves  when mother returns  secure attachment  happily explore  distressed  seek contact  insecure attachment  onts explore  cry loudly  upset/indifferent     ­ attachment style seems to be result of parenting style, rather than  temperament  ­ children who develop secure attachments have basic trust later in life    ­ parenting styles  ­ authoritarian ­ parents impose rules and expect obedience  ­ permissive ­ parents submit to children’s desires   ­ authoritative ­ parents are demanding and responsive   ­ Table 5.3 ­ Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development   Social Development   ­ parent and peer relationships   ­ peers more influential on talk, dress, interest, etc.  ­ ex. you aren’t going to borrow clothes from your grandma but you would  from your friends  ­ Adulthood  ­ influence of significant life events and social life  ­ ex. going to college, death of loved one, moving in with significant other  ­ no evidence of midlife crisi (in colloquial sense)  ­ stresses triggered by negative life event  ­ Social Clock: culturally preferred timing of social events, such as marriage,  parenthood and retirement  ­ ex. supposed to graduate high school, supposed to go to college,  supposed to get a job, etc.  ­ if you deviate from these things people will think “what’s wrong with you”   ­ intimacy and generativity   ­ generativity: the feeling that you're making a lasting contribution   ­ Love  ­ pair­bonding  ­ most marriage success when people share values  ­ one reason why arranged marriages have a fairly good  success rate: parents know what shared fairly values are  so they can find a good pair  ­ changes over time in divorce rates  ­ positive personal and community outcomes associated with  marriage   ­ satisfaction and burden of children  ­ Work  ­ tendency to define self in terms of jobs  ­ also in terms of major  ­ “I’m a biology major”  ­ Death and dying   ­ life satisfaction drops during the year of spouse’s death but does not drop  to zero  ­ five stages of grieving  ­ denial   ­ anger  ­ bargaining  ­ depression  ­ acceptance   


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