Psych Ch. 5 Notes
Psych Ch. 5 Notes Psych100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Ch. 5 Development Through the Lifespan Developmental Psych Major Issues developmental Psychology examines physical, cognitive, and social development across lifespan Nature and Nurture Continuity and stages stability and change Prenatal Development and the Newborn conception women born with all eggs they will ever have men begin producing sperm during puberty and continue throughout life sperm eat away protective layer of egg one sperm enters egg and blocks out others nuclei of sperm and egg fuse Prenatal Development Zygote fertilized egg 10 days post fertilization attach to uterine wall Embryo from about 2 weeks after fertilization through second month formed from inner cells of zygote; outer cells of zygote make placenta Fetus 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens harmful agents, such as chemicals or viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during development Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant mothers heavy alcohol use The competent Newborn reflexes when you drop a baby it spreads it arms out habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation to study visual preference to study categorization social responsiveness Physical Development infancy and childhood brain development pruning is when you get rid of unused synaptic connections brain and maturation and infant memory infantile amnesia finding that we have relatively few memories before 3rd birthday hippocampus and frontal lobes develop into adolescence 2month olds show evidence of learning kick to activate mobile unconscious of stored information about unused native childhood language adolescence transition period from childhood to adulthood starts with sexual maturation ends with independence in youngadulthood puberty: period of sexual maturation; become capable of reproducing primary sex characteristics: body structures that make sexual reproduction possible secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics adulthood much wider variation in development compared to earlier stages early/young adulthood twenties and thirties middle adulthood to age 65 changes in middle adulthood physical vigor influenced by physical activity level late adulthood age 65 to death changes in later adulthood telomeres: production influenced by smoking, obesity, and stress general decline in sensory abilities ex. elderly might think their food tastes bland immune system weakens, but buildup of antibodies help fight infections brain areas responsible for memory atrophy deterioration in parts of the brain responsible for memory physical exercise beneficial to physical and mental abilities Cognitive Development cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating infancy and childhood assimilation: interpreting new ideas in terms of existing schemas accommodation: adapting current schemas to incorporate new information *Table 5.1 know Piaget’s stages of cognitive development adulthood best memory in early adulthood depends on type of memory older adults have difficulty with prospective memory older adults have good memory for meaningful information older adults memory for skills decline less than for verbal information Social Development infancy and childhood origins of attachment attachment emotional connection to another person body contact not necessarily nourishment familiarity critical period optimal period in early life when exposure to certain stimulus leads to normal development imprinting process in which certain animals form attachments attachments Differences mother present when mother leaves when mother returns secure attachment happily explore distressed seek contact insecure attachment onts explore cry loudly upset/indifferent attachment style seems to be result of parenting style, rather than temperament children who develop secure attachments have basic trust later in life parenting styles authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience permissive parents submit to children’s desires authoritative parents are demanding and responsive Table 5.3 Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development Social Development parent and peer relationships peers more influential on talk, dress, interest, etc. ex. you aren’t going to borrow clothes from your grandma but you would from your friends Adulthood influence of significant life events and social life ex. going to college, death of loved one, moving in with significant other no evidence of midlife crisi (in colloquial sense) stresses triggered by negative life event Social Clock: culturally preferred timing of social events, such as marriage, parenthood and retirement ex. supposed to graduate high school, supposed to go to college, supposed to get a job, etc. if you deviate from these things people will think “what’s wrong with you” intimacy and generativity generativity: the feeling that you're making a lasting contribution Love pairbonding most marriage success when people share values one reason why arranged marriages have a fairly good success rate: parents know what shared fairly values are so they can find a good pair changes over time in divorce rates positive personal and community outcomes associated with marriage satisfaction and burden of children Work tendency to define self in terms of jobs also in terms of major “I’m a biology major” Death and dying life satisfaction drops during the year of spouse’s death but does not drop to zero five stages of grieving denial anger bargaining depression acceptance
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