Tudor England Notes
Tudor England Notes HIST 3323
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Espinal on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3323 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. James Heart in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Tudor England in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
August 26 Feudalism Norman Conquest In 1066 William Bastard Duke of Normandy became William I Feudalism entailed a militaristic system a system of landholding and a system of social and political hierarchy William began to divide England into large parcels barons were granted land in exchange for military service they had to fight for the king for 40 days They were also contracted to bring extra men with them Barons would then lease land to people who had fought for them these people would then become the barons vassals and had to pay rent This helped to establish a clear class system everyone knew their position in society Government of England The Monarchy The King s Council Barons officers of state advise the king on numerous matters Parliament 0 House of Lords hereditary 0 House of Commons elected Divine right monarchy The belief that a monarch came to power because God wanted them to Primogeniture Inheritance by the firstborn son 0 The parent could not divide the land up between their children only the eldest could do so after they had inherited it The King s Council advised the king but also carried out functions of government they were essentially a cabinet Kings were often physicallyemotionally weak some were also minors The barons who were respected landowners often had more local control of the general population Sometimes these barons created their own fiefdoms commanded loyalty from their men and created their own private armies Retainders Soldiers who stayed with a baron after a campaign was over and continued to fight for said baron Buroughs and counties sent representatives commoners to the House of Commons they were supposed to balance out the House of Lords The king was the only person who could call or dismiss Parliament if he dissolved Parliament there would need to be a new election However the King could only get additional funds from Parliament The barons remained very powerful during this time period August 28 Edward 111 Reigned from 13271377 When he died this throne went to his grandson Richard II He reigned from 13771399 While his uncle John of Gaunt was away Richard appointed his friends to his regency council Michael dela Pole Named the Lord Chancellor very corrupt Richard was an absolutist he believed that his word was law and there was no disputing that The aristocracy was angry about Richard s council they blamed the council however since Richard was supposedly given the throne by divine right and God could do no wrong 1387 Merciless Parliament 1388 The Lords Appellant O Appealed to Richard 1389 Richard came of ageto reign on the throne He made a truce with France and secured it by marrying Charles VI s daughter Isabella 1397 Richard called Parliament once more He decided to use Parliament to get revenge on his enemies everything that the Merciless Parliament had done in 1387 were undone in 1397 He also went after the five Lords Appellant Richard also banished his cousins for having been involved in the Merciless Parliament and the Lords Appellant He also locked up his uncle John of Gaunt his uncle died in 1399 in the Tower of London Henry Bolingbrook John of Gaunt s sonRichard s cousin he was the cousin who Richard exiled After his uncle s death rather than mourning Richard took his uncle s land While he was in Ireland people supported Henry Bollingbrook to overthrow Richard When he came back he was put into the Tower of London Problem If one believed in divine right how did one remove a monarch who had been put there by God Solution they convinced Richard to vacate the throne they ceclared the throne vaant Henry laid claim to it Henry was not technically the true heir Edmund Mortimer was Although he was an overmighty subject he was crowned as King Henry IV He reigned for 14 years 13991413 survived two rebellions by the Mortimers died in his bed of natural causes He was succeeded by his son Henry V 14121422 He reignited the war with France fought at the Battle of Agincourt 1415 Henry made a deal with Charles VI and married his Charles daughter Catherine the treaty stated that Charles would serve out his term and then Henry would be King of France However Henry died suddenly and his son Henry V1 14221461 14701471 too the throne Henry was a minor and his uncle was forced to share power of the regency with the council and Parliament Henry VI was not a confident ruler he was also not very intelligent People began to plot to usurp his throne However he eventually married Margaret of Anjou France August 31 In 1453 Henry s wife produced a son thus the Lancastrian line would continue with his heir His son s name was Edward Richard Duke of York claimed that Henry s mental instability made him unsuitable to lead from 14531455 there was a battle between Margaret of Anjou and her followers and Richard and his followers for control of the council War of the Roses 14551485 Lancaster vs York Richard was killed his son Edward continued the fight for the throne Battle of Tawton Moore Decisive victory for the Yorkists Henry VI forced to abdicate the throne Margaret and her son ed to France Edward crowned Edward IV Edward married Elizabeth Woodville a commoner which incensed Richard Neville Earl of Warwick because of this Richard switched sides Battle of Tewkesbury Margaret s son was killed she was banished this is often thought of as the last battle of the war Edward IV despite his faults was respected by the people for living within his means He took care of the law first and foremost something that other kings had not Edward made a habit of sitting in the Court of King s Bench it was mostly for the image of presiding it conveyed the fact that he cared about the law He also travelled with judges during their circuit courts When his brother rebelled against him on two separate occasions Edward put him on trial and had him executed Edward died suddenly in April 1483 at the age of 40 He had two sons Edward V and Richard Duke of York known as the Princes in the Tower Edward gave special powers to his brother Richard who was to rule as lord protector of the realm Richard moved quickly against Elizabeth Woodville no one wanted to come to their aid since they were commoners He then claimed in front of Parliament that Edward IV was illegitimate he also claimed that Edward had never actually been married since there were no witnesses at their wedding this would mean that Edward s sons were illegitimate Because of this Richard was crowned Richard III Within months the two boys were put in the Tower of London and never seen again Richard s guilt was debated Se tember 2 Whether Richard 111 had something to do with the murder of the princes in the Tower or not did not matter public opinion thought that he had people saw him as a usurper After his son died there was a plot to kill Richard as there was no heir to take Richard s place There was also a rebellion planen in 1483 which was a failure Henry Tudor had been in exile but the failed rebellion showed people that there was another option other than Richard Henry amassed followers and essentially set up a government in exile He then went to France for help Charles VIII agreed to lend him money enough to raise a 2000man army Henry then makes his march for England Battle of Bosworth Field August 1485 Henry was outnumbered but less than 14 of the English nobility showed up for the battle The battle was a testimony to how the feudal system had collapsed Richard was killed the crown was placed upon Henry s head after the victory Richard was stripped naked dragged away and buried dishonorably Henry faced a more difficult task when he took the throne in 1485 than his predecessors had There had been a multitude of weak kings before him The reverence for the institution 0 the Crown as well as for the individual king had greatly waned When put into practice feudalism did not make sense roughly 90 of England relied on agriculture so having farmers leave during an important harvest was problematic farmers began paying their overlords so that they did not have to go Barons then began to hire mercenaries bastard feudalism destroyed the personal relationships between the barons and the farmers Thus Henry passed a new law forbidding retaining so that barons could not hold private armies 0 He then got rid of franchises and liberties which essentially provided a safe haven for criminals 0 Henry also had to address the unstable English economy entire town began to disappear because of the economic crisis 0 This resulted in people being dislocated people did not yearn to leave their homes so this adversely affect them mentally and physically 0 The plague had a tremendous effect on England as well roughly 23 million people died during the first instance of it 0 The Crown and the Church also became competing institutions 0 The Church was how many people were educated it offered sanctuary to criminals they protected their own clergy they used church courts to try them Se tember 4 0 The relationship between Scotland Ireland and the Crown was incredibly illdefined 0 There had been hundreds of years of war between England and Scotland 0 Ireland had been conquered by Henry 11 previously 0 The Pale which was 50 miles from Dublin was an area in Ireland completely under English control 0 England gave men titles earldomsand sent them to Ireland to civilize the Irish 0 Henry inherited a government that was firmly in place his finances were not what Henry had hoped they would be 0 Henry soon realized that in order to be a good king he had to be rich 0 The people Henry was surrounded by were close allies not hangerson 0 He was only 28 when he took the throne he grew up in Wales and spent time in France when he was exiled he was relatively unknown in his own kingdom 0 He was a great supporter of the arts and of the Church he created King s College 0 Intelligent singleminded intent upon restoring the throne to its original gloryprestige 0 He had numerous Yorkists trying to challenge his claim to the throne seen as a usurper 0 Henry argued that his victory at Bosworth Field was proof that God wanted him to rule 0 November 1485 Parliament recognised him as their sovereign lord he still had to defend his throne however Contenders for the throne Elizabeth of York Edward IV s daughter Henry Courtney Edward IV s grandson Edward Earl of Warwick Edward IV s nephew Jon Earl of Lincoln Edward IV s nephew Edmund de la Pole Edward IV s nephew Henry decided to marry Elizabeth of York brought the parties of York and Lancaster together took Elizabeth out of the running for the throne He put Edward Earl of Warwick in the Tower of London However twice over the next 10 years he had his throne challenged by Yorkists Lambert Simnell plot Yorkists conspired in Ireland to bring forth a young man they claimed was Edward Earl of Warwick John Earl of Lincoln was behind the plot June 1487 Conspirators amassed an army of 2000 and launched an attack the Battle of Stoke Henry routed the attackers Showed Henry that he needed to control Ireland more Perkin Warbeck In 1491 conspirators tried a similar plot trying to pass off Warbeck as Richard Duke of York Yorkists did not send him to England but rather to the other courts of Europe they made an alliance with the Yorkists In England Henry rounded up anyone who may have had anything to do with the conspiracy and had them beheaded Warbeck was thrown out of Ireland he went to Scotland James IV recognized him as king they tried to launch an attack on England very unorganized not effective James had violated a treaty between Scotland and England Henry began building an army against Scotland interrupted by a revolt in Cornwall in response to the tax increase that had been put into effect to pay for the new army This made Henry decide not to go to war with Scotland decided to call a truce in 1497 they decided to marry Henry s daughter Margaret off to James IV to ease tensions Warbeck left Scotland went to Cornwall raised 1000man army Henry s army put them down Warbeck was put in the Tower of London and met the Earl of Warwick they conspired against Henry Henry finally lost his patience with them and had both men executed This made Henry s throne more secure September 9 The most important task after taking the throne was enhancing the Crown s wealth he did not want to rely upon Parliament for money Wealth meant that he could present himself as a good patron could engage in foreign policy meaning war Ordinary income 0 Crown lands most important 0 Custom duties 0 Judicial fees and fines 0 Prerogative feudal duties Acts of presumption Gifts given by Henry s Yorkist predecessors were taken back often he would make a deal and turn someone into a tenant rather than kick them off their land The crown got royalties on wine wool leather 0 This was according to the Book of Rates 0 Henry only revised the Book of Rates twice 1503 and 1507 Judicial fees Fees from litigants during the judicial process Feudal dues People were required to pay for the wedding of Henry s eldest daughter and for his son s knighting also if he were kidnapped the lords were required to pay his ransom As soon as a woman got married her possessions reverted to the husband she was basically his property The king s council was a very loyal group of followers who went with Henry into exile before he became king They had three jobs 0 Advise 0 Members of the administration 0 Adjudicators He gave them a mandate to oversee the legal system Anything that negatively affected the judicial system was put before the council they had the power to fine and put people in jail The Council Learned A group of men with intense legal training who would enforce the king s prerogative People who had questionable loyalty to Henry were fined exorbitantly they were then given a bond of good behaviour 0 Basically If you re good we won t collect the fine If you aren t we ll start collecting payments 0 This helped keep the aristocrats in line 0 Council of the North The Council of the North was an administrative body set up in 1472 by King Edward IV of England the first Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England to improve government control and economic prosperity and to benefit all of Northern England 0 Council of the Welsh Marches The Council of Wales and the Marches was a regional administrative body based in Ludlow Castle within the Kingdom of England between the 15th and 17th centuries similar to the Council of the North September 11 English Local Government w 0 Official Sheriff 0 Court Assizes met every six months delt with more serious crimes like murder and rape O Hundred 0 Official Justice of the Peace 0 Court Quarter Sessions met four times a year dealt with petty crimes petty litigation 0 Parish 0 Official Constable 0 Court Petty Sessions All of these officials were unpaid got their income from other means such as land 0 There were 26 English counties given that most government work was done in London the rest of the country essentially had to run itself citizens were expected to take a hand in their local government 0 The sheriff enforced the law but was also the head of the local militia Each county was divided into hundreds Like sheriffs justices of the peace were appointed by the Crown they had to round up criminals conducted court Justices of the peace also had to monitor officers behaviour locally manage trade at local markets People were identified by their parish constables were essentially deputy justices of the peace Common Law courts 0 King s bench Problems between king and other people 0 Common pleas Problems between average citizens 0 Exchequer Financial or rent disputes Circuit judges were essentially the mouthpiece of the Crown The representatives did not have set terms nor did they have set term limits Most of them were wealthy landed individuals since they were the only ones who could afford to work without getting paid The king did not want to call Parliament too often since members of Parliament had to leave their families and make the expensive trip to London but he could not wait too long or opposition could manifest itself Parliament had two functions 0 Raising taxes 0 Passing statutes legislating Subsidy The Crown would ask Parliament for help in subsidizing the government became income tax Since Henry VII did not raise taxes that often when he did he would usually get what he wanted Henry had a good relationship with the Church 0 He was a devout Christian Ecclesiastical courts 0 Archbishop s Court of Canterbury 0 Archdeacon s Court 0 Bishop s Consistory Courts 33 of them Provincial Councils 0 Council of the Welsh Marches 0 Council of the North The distinction of whether to be tried in a secular or ecclesiastical court was not always clear Sm Se tember 14 Henry appointed a Cardinal Protector who was a representative in Rome who was supposed to essentially run interference for him Henry convinced the pope to not grant sanctuary to traitors People carried around a neck verse and if stopped they would recite it phonetically from memory 0 Literacy was a sign of the clergy Henry changed this so that they would have to write down verses to prove their membership in the clergy He modernized the government it became a cooperative enterprise 5 major players at the time 1 Spain 2 France 3 4 5 Holy Roman Empire Papacy Italian States 1469 Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon ninetenths of Spain was unified with their marriage They both felt passionate about creating a united Spain Isabella had inherited the throne from her brother who had squandered it The first thing they did after they took the throne was do away with private armies 1478 Established the Spanish Inquisition they tended to use the Inquisition as a way of hunting down their political enemies Their children 0 John O Isabella 0 Joanna 0 Maria 0 Charles Isabella their daughter died Maria married her husband Manuel of Portugal Joanna went mad due to her husband s constant wandering eye When King Ferdinand died his son Charles took the throne when the Holy Roman Emperor died Charles also became the Holy Roman Empire 0 Most powerful man in Europe France Much like England in how it developed in the 16th century era France was very fragmented in 1477 The 100 Years War fought was entirely on French soil did not go well for France Valois Kings 0 Louis XI 146183 0 Charles VIII 148398 0 Louis XII 14981515 These kings were essentially the French version of the Tudors France had established a standing army Also established a taille which was a standing income tax 0 This allowed France to plan and budget more effectively Limited meetings of the Estates General French Parliament They used the standing army to impose their will rather than as a cooperative government body Also established a paid bureaucracy completely dependent upon the Crown 0 The Crown could move the officials around at will France had an expansionist policy 0 Two main rivals England and Spain Se tember 16 The State of Burgundy occupied the Valois Kings minds In 1477 the French Crown went to war with the Duke of Burgundy King Louis XI was ultimately successful and the duke was killed in battle Treaty of Arias The idea was that Charles and Margaret s marriage would bring peace and Charles would inherit Burgundy In 1483 Louis died Charles took the throne Charles VIII was more interested in the state of Brittany Spain and England both wanted the territory did not want France to get it In 1489 the Medina del Campo was an alliance between Spain and England to stop Charles The Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian wanted Brittany for himself he married Ann of Brittany in 1490 and the territory was his by right In 1491 Charles took Brittany by force convinced Ann to apply to the Pope for an annulment since Ann was 12 and the marriage was never consummated the Pope gave the annulment Afterward she promptly married Charles VIII by doing so Charles not only stole Maximillian s wife but also jilted Maximillian s daughter whom he was supposed to marry In 1492 Henry invaded France he wanted to demonstrate that he was a man of his word neither he nor Charles actually wanted to fight however Treaty of Etaples Henry received a large pension agreed to stay out of France The Holy Roman Empire was split up into roughly 300 semiautonomous ministates The Holy Roman Empire had no standing army Electors People who were able to elect the emperor The Diet was not very effective at achieving legislative reform However there was a Diet at Frankfurt and they wanted to abolish private armies wanted a Parliament also wanted to implement a tax It did not go well they stopped having an annual Diet The Holy Roman Emperor was interested in the Kingdom of Florence People identified themselves by their state Florentine Venetian etc there was no idea of nationalism The Papal States were essentially a sanctioned country within Rome The pope played a pivotal role in politics he had the power to sway important political events Popes sometimes used their illegitimate children to form private armies to protect their territories September 18 Henry VIII April 22 1509 Henry VII died his son was not yet 18 waited until June so that he would be an adult at his coronation He greeted the throne with much excitement people thought that a new young king would usher in a new era towards the end of Henry VII s reign he had become cranky and disagreeable Henry VIII was very intelligent spoke several languages carried himself like a king However he had no experience he had been raised in seclusion since his father was worried that something might happen to him the way it had to Arthur 0 Arthur his older brother was supposed to be Henry VII s heir but he died at the age of 16 Henry s first official act was to arrest Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley he had no legal recourse he had to manufacture charges of treason even though they had done their jobs the way Henry s father had asked them to Henry was simply doing what the people wanted even though it was clearly wrong 0 He then decided to marry Catherine of Aragon his brother s widow who was seven years older than Henry 0 Married her in June of 1509 0 This was a somewhat impetuous decision since he was a new king 0 Catherine was supposed to provide a male heir the heir in the spare but failed to do so 0 Henry was quite athletic wrestling hunting jousting etc his court and the general public did not mind his fondness for these recreational activities they considered it a breath of fresh air after his father Took him a surprisingly long time to turn to war When France invaded Italy again in 1509 Henry was eager to get involved He also wanted to prove to the pope that he was a good Christian However he did not make a move for two years part of this was because of Catherine she was her father s Ferdinand s ambassador Ferdinand knew that he would get dragged into the war if Henry got involved Henry eventually realized how expensive war was He was being quite generous with his friends and supporters O Spreading the wealth granting land and titles Parliament was not likely to agree to give Henry money to go fight in a war that had no real purpose Henry also had no standing army he had to go hire mercenaries to fight for him He ended up building an army of approximately 30000 men His council helped him carry out daytoday government business it was mostly the same men whom his father had used Parliament met on February 4 1512 and changed the tax system they were still using the same system from 1334 established an income tax This allowed them to tax those with more landmoney made it more fair This was not a very popular decision Roughly the top 10 of the nation s wealthy funded Henry s exploits The clergy was taxed along with everyone else which was difficult as they were not paid a salary they were often paid in goods such as produce Henry joined the Holy League which was comprised of O The Holy Roman Emperor O Ferdinand 0 The Pope 0 Henry Ended up being a disaster for Henry Louis XII decided to cause problems in Scotland to distract Henry The Scots were routed James IV Henry s brotherinlaw had been married to Margaret Henry s sister was killed Henry led an army back to France captured the city of Tournai in 1513 Three months later the Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand made peace With Franc this left Henry all alone MidTerm Studv Guide minim What it was The barons who were respected landowners often had more local control of the general population Sometimes these barons created their own fiefdoms commanded loyalty from their men and created their own private armies soldiers who stayed with a baron after a campaign was over and continued to fight for said baron were called retainers Retaining also served another purpose the king frequently needed a large army at short notice to fight foreign campaigns and retaining effectively allowed a king to gather around him a sizeable number of trained men at short notice Why it was significant This did however create a problem there was always the chance that one nobleman or several grouped together would become more powerful than the king this was something that Henry VII was not willing to tolerate or risk At the start of his reign Henry VII publicly condemned retaining in 1487 and in 1504 laws were passed which outlawed the practice Bosworth Field What it was The last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York Fought on 22 August 1485 The battle was won by the Lancastrians whose leader was Henry Tudor Earl of Richmond Richard III the last king of the House of York was killed in the battle After the battle Henry was crowned the new king on the battlefield Why it was significant Henry was outnumbered however less than IA of the English nobility showed up to support Richard showed that his support had waned Battle was also a testament to how the feudal system had collapsed Perkin After this victory he became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty Marked the end of the Plantagenet Dynasty Warbeck Who he was Claimed to be Richard Duke of York and son of Edward IV of England this made him a threat to the new Tudor Dynasty This was a plot put together by the Yorkists trying to dethrone Henry did not send him to England but rather to other courts of Europe People were uncertain as to whether Richard Shrewsbury had died in the Tower of London or not so Warbeck gained followers based on his claim He was received by Charles VII of France but was later expelled due to the Treaty of Etaples He was publicly recognized as Richard Shrewsbury by Margaret of York the aunt of the Princes in the Tower she likely did not believe him but pretended to as an attempt to dethrone Henry He was put in the Tower of London with the Earl of Warwick and the two conspired against Henry Henry finally had both of them executed Whv he was important He posed a threat to Henry s edgling court He was able to manipulate the strange disappearance of the Princes in the Tower was creating alliances with foreign courts If people had believed his claim to the throne Henry would have been dethrone bringing the Tudor Dynasty to a screeching halt Wardship What it W382 Empson and Dudley Who th 6V WCICZ Edmund Dudley was an English administrator and a financial agent of Henry VII served as Speaker of the House of Commons and President of the King s Council Richard Empson was an educated lawyer and also served as the Speaker of the House of Commons They helped reestablish the payment of feudal dues and of fines for lawbreaking the zeal with which they carried collected the king s revenue made them very unpopular Although the two men were carrying out Henry VII s wishes they also became wealthy men themselves as they often pocketed some of the money they collected for themselves When Henry VII died they were left without a protector when Henry VIII took the throne his first official act was to arrest the two men he technically had no legal recourse as they had been following his father s orders thus Henry manufactured charges of treason and both men were executed Henry did this as a way of making himself popular with his new subjects Why they were significant Although it is true that they had used their positions to line their own pockets the two men had not really done anything wrong they had collected taxes like Henry VII had ordered them to the trumped up charges of treason and their resulting executions were just Henry VIII s way of gaining popularity early on in his reign Star Chamber What it was Wolsey did not know legal procedures but he started regular record keeping and formalized the proceedings of the king s council moved them out of the regular chamber for legal proceedings called the new chamber the Star Chamber Contempt of the king s law perjury trying to in uence juries government officials who acted out of line etc were brought before the Star Chamber In the reign of King Henry VIII the court was under the leadership of Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cranmer From this time forward the Court of Star Chamber became a political weapon for bringing actions against opponents to the policies of King Henry VIII his Ministers and his Parliament Why it was significant 0 It could impose punishment for actions which were deemed to be morally reprehensible but were not in violation of the letter of the law this gave the Star Chamber great exibility as it could punish defendants for any action which the court felt should be unlawful even when in fact it was technically lawful 0 Over time the Star Chamber evolved into a political weapon a symbol of the misuse and abuse of power by the English monarchy and its courts Treatv of Medina del Cgmno What it was 0 The Treaty of Medina del Campo was an agreement developed on March 26 1489 between England and Spain 0 It accomplished three main goals 0 The establishment of a common policy for the two countries regarding France 0 The reduction of tariffs between the two countries 0 The arrangement of a marriage contract between Arthur Tudor eldest son of Henry VII of England and Catherine of Aragon daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand Whv it was important 0 Henry was still a new king and his claim was by conquest alone he faced a host of claimants still alive with arguably better legal claims however Ferdinand and Isabella were securely on their thrones 0 Ferdinand and Isabella were looking for help against France Henry was looking for security on the throne Henry had a new son Arthur and Isabella and Ferdinand a young daughter Catherine so a marriage and alliance would benefit both Legate a Latere What it was 0 This position was commonly referred to as a papal legate a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic Church 0 The holder of the position was empowered by matter of Catholic faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters when he was sent somewhere he was above all others 0 It was supposed to be a temporary position but when Wolsey held this position it was renewed every year until 1524 it was then granted to him for life 0 Wolsey used his position to essentially run the government Henry was young and rather disinterested in the minutia of government Why this was significant 0 Wolsey s misuse of this position was unprecedented 0 He took what was supposed to be a position that represented the pope and used it to run the English government 0 This position is also what initiated the quick and corrupt rise of Wolsey The Holy League What it was 0Consisted of O The Holy Roman Emperor 0 Ferdinand 0 The pope 0 Henry 0 It ended up being a disaster for Henry 0 Louis XII decided to cause problems in Scotland to distract Henry however the Scots were routed and James IV Henry s brotherinlaw was killed 0 Henry led an army back to France and captured the city of Toumai in 1513 0 Three months later the Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand made peace with France this left Henry all alone Why it was significant 0 Major deception by Henry s supposed allies not the first time that Henry s fatherinlaw had betrayed him Tournai What it was 0 The Battle of the Spurs took place on 16 August 1513 troops under Henry VIII and Maximilian I surprised and routed a body of French cavalry 0 Though Henry would have preferred an attack on Boulogne he went through with the siege of Tournai 0 Toumai fell to Henry on 23 September Why this was significant 0 No one knows why Henry decided to take Tournai as it held no strategic significance However after he took Tournai Henry successfully made peace with Louis allowed Henry to keep Tournai Henry married his sister Mary to Louis XII This was Henry s first foray onto the continent and he was able to go back to England Victorious Se tember 21 No one knows why Henry decided to take Tournai no strategic significance Henry then successfully made peace with Louis allowed Henry to keep Tournai married his sister Mary to Louis XII She got Henry to promise her that she could pick her next husband This was his first foray onto the continent Europe and he was able to go back to England victorious Thomas Wolsey had a talent for organization he had organized the troop movements during the war in Italy made the peace with Louis Born to a butcher in Ipswitch not a good start in England s rigid class system He became involved with the Church as a means of moving up the social ladder Henry VIII appointed him the King s Almoner supposed to take care of the poor sat on the King s Council He became the Bishop of Tournai never actually set foot in Tournai Wolsey later made Bishop of Lincoln when the Archbishop of York died he took his place He held these three positions simultaneously In 1515 Henry pressured the pope to make Wolsey a cardinal this was a scandal he was unqualified The pope felt compelled to do what Henry asked Archbishop William Warham was Lord Chancellor Wolsey wanted the position Warham was bullied into giving it to Wolsey Wolsey now held the highest position in the land He was not however the head of the Church Papal legate a latere Ambassador at the pope s side supposed to be a temporary position when the papal legate went somewhere he was above all others He had the position renewed every year until 1524 then he was named for life Wolsey s rise was partially due to Henry s youth gave him his way Wolsey was charming generous to friends but never forgot a slight He was very selfcentered vain major character aw was greed Built lavish palaces 500 household servants lived a life unbecoming of a priest Began to attract attention created numerous enemies Only cared that the king was his friend did not care how many enemies he amassed Henry was young disinterested in running government let Wolsey essentially run the government for him Wolsey did not think longterm solved problems one at a time Only called Parliament in 1515 when they were at war and 1523 when the coffers were empty only did so to ask to raise taxes Asked for 20 shillings on the pound 20 which was a lot Forced loans Going door to door and asking for loans through intimidation Wolsey wanted to use the King s Council as an oversight body wanted to be the judge but had no legal training only wanted to enjoy the trappings of being a judge Court of Chancery Essentially the king s court of conscience Se tember 23 Wolsey though that sitting on the Court was a good chance to show his willingness to carry out the king s wishes However he was out of his depth did not know legal procedures He formalized the proceedings of the King s Council established regular record keeping Moved them out of the normal chamber when they were carrying out legal proceedings called the new chamber the Star Chamber Contempt of the king s law perjury trying to in uence juries government officials who acted up etc were brought before the Star Chamber enclosure Process by English farmers where they enclosed what had previously been a common area by their tenants the farmers then used that area for their sheep as wool was on the rise Wolsey went after farmers who continued to engage in this act the problem was that this was still an agricultural society and many of these landowners sat in Parliament Wolsey s appointment as papal legate was to improve the wealth of the church also to improve the education of the lower clergy who were often poor and uneducated He abused his authority in an unprecedented manner his personal conduct was reprehensible pluralism Having more than one clerical office at once meaning one of the offices would certainly suffer nonresidency Minister or priest of a church is not present at their diocese simony Buyingselling church offices nepotism Securing a job for someone in one s family incontinence Violating oath of celibacy Wolsey was taking in roughly 10000 pounds a year in personal income 0 This would be roughly 10 million pounds today Fathered 5 children promoted his eldest son over and over again He imposed tyrannical rule on the Church and no one did anything to stop him When a bishop died Wolsey would appoint himself and collect the income without actually doing that particular job when he did appoint bishops he entered into a contract with him and took a cut of the man s income Thus Church offices were being bought by people who had no interest in being spiritual leaders just wanted the power that came with the office The discipline in the indiVidual diocese was weakened The Convocation normally met when Parliament did had representatives from the 26 diocese supposed to meet to discuss legate canon law Wolsey never let them meet This made Wolsey even more unpopular resulted in anticlericalism people felt that the pope was not governing his Church Wolsey destroyed the infrastructure of the Church his behaVior paved the way for the Protestant Reformation in Europe In 1514 a year after being married Louis XII Mary s husband died Francis I took his place Charles Brandon was supposed to organize a marriage married Mary himself instead Francis was not interested anyway Francis reignited the war in Italy in 1515 Wolsey was furious could not get money from Parliament tried to negotiate an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire In 1516 Ferdinand died Charles became King of Spain October 1518 Wolsey had a peace conference endorsed the Treaty of London supposed to make peace and make war with the Muslims in Turkey 1519 Maximillian Holy Roman Emperor died France tried to interfere with the election of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor Treaty of London dissolved after only 15 months September 25 The King s Great Matter Henry s attempt at divorcing Catherine Henry never embraced Protestant theology devout Catholic his whole life The divorce served as a last push for initiating the Protestant Reformation Each party in the divorce had their supporters Early on it seemed like a simple family issue on the surface it seemed that it was a successful marriage Over the first 18 years of their marriage they were rarely out of one another s presence Henry enjoyed her company as she was quite intelligent He was relatively faithful only 2 or 3 affairs One affair did result in an illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy Duke of Richmond Around 1524 Catherine had undergone 6 pregnancies only 1 lived his daughter Mary She was around 40 years old so the pregnancies were taking a tol on her She became somewhat morose probably impacted Henry s lack of interest in her Catherine s relationship with Wolsey had become downright hostile he saw her as a threat to his power she saw him for what he really was Henry s real concern was that Catherine had not produced a male heir could make him vulnerable to internal and external threats In Henry s view Mary was essentially useless did not really recognize her presence In 1525 Henry became infatuated with Anne Boleyn he had met her years before when he was having an affair with her sister she was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn one of his courtiers She was very good at manipulating Henry played her cards carefully did not want to be used and discarded like her sister had she wanted to be his wife or nothing at all She would not enter his bed until they were married the more she spurned him the more frantic he became Wolsey had wanted to marry Henry off to a French princess to solidify an alliance with France furthermore Wolsey hated the Boleyns and vice versa By 1527 it became clear that Henry s feelings for Anne were real not a passing fancy he was more public about spurning Catherine did not include her in public events He began to claim that he had violated the Bible by marrying his brother 3 widow The problem was the papacy had looked at the marriage in 1509 to ensure that it was legitimate he had gotten a papal dispensation to marry Catherine Henry argued that no one could dispense with God s law He also argued that Catherine and Arthur had consummated their marriage Critics pointed out that Henry had misread the bible there was actually a part in the Bible that commanded one to marry the widow of one s brother He was looking at Wolsey to fix this Furthermore Henry was essentially asking the papacy to admit that they had made a mistake the pope was supposed to be Christ s vicar on Earth and thus infallible Charles V Catherine s nephew had taken the pope hostage said there would be no divorce Ordered Wolsey to call a special court to see this matter Catherine was not going to cooperate she was deeply hurt not going to give up without a fight She appealed the case to Rome directly Henry wanted to drive Charles V out of Rome to free the pope s hands In 1528 Cardinal Campeggio went to England to try and resolve the matter A document surfaced in Spain regarding the original papal dispensation June 1529 Court of the papal legate reconvened Catherine did not recognize their authority went to Rome
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