Biodiversity and Plant Form/Function
Biodiversity and Plant Form/Function BIOL 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by TylerElliot on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Ohio University taught by Kim Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Environmental Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Biodiversity and Plant FormFunction 9715 91115 92 Major Milestones is Earth s Biodiversity 0 1st Cells Evolved into Different Cell Types 0 Heterotrophic cells are incapable of producing their own food 0 Autotrophic cells produce chemicals that store energy 0 Chemoautotrophs evolved the ability to store energy contained in certain inorganic chemicals found in or near the ocean Heterotrophs had to become predators scavengers and decomposers Heterotrophs and autotrophs regulated each other and helped evolve balanced ecosystems o Autotrophs ability to create food became known as photosynthesis I Free oxygen 0 Some cells that are identical to the first cells are still present and now known as archaea 0 Simple Cells Evolved into Complex Cells 0 The first cells were prokaryotes and are still successful in hot springs and acid baths Eukaryotes appeared 152 billion years ago 2 processes have been involved in the transition from prokaryote to eukaryote I lnpocketing and refining plasma membrane created membranebound organelles I Endosymbiotic Theory Mitochondria were originally prokaryotic cells that engaged in mutualism with eukaryotes until they became one cells 0 Multicellularity Some cells specialized and others became dependent on them for those special functions 0 Tissues are comprised of a group of specialized cells 0 Evolution of Animals 0 The 1st milestone is the presence of tissues I The most primitive animals are sponges which have no tissues while all others do 0 2nd milestone involved symmetry or overall body form and shape I Animals with radial symmetry have no heads or tails nor rights or lefts I Animals with bilateral symmetry have a definite right left head and tail 0 Embryos of primitive animals have 2 germ layers which are layers of cells where their organs develop I Ectoderm outer skin I Endodermis inner skin digestive system I More advanced animals have a 3rd layer mesoderm the origin of muscles and associated organs between the two layers 0 3rd milestone involved the presence of body cavities called coeloms I Acoelomates primitive animals with no cavities I Pseudocoelomates relatively primitive animals with cavities between 2 layers endoderm and mesoderm I Coelomates advanced animals with a cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm 0 When cavities fill with fluid that is under pressure they form a hydrostatic skeleton which gives the body rigidity and assists in movement I Exoskeleton outside skeleton I Endoskeleton internal skeleton 93 Keeping Track of Species 0 Classification First Described as Natural Order 0 Aristotle classified animals from simplest to most complex 0 Archetypes of species that shared a particular set of characteristics could be arranged into groups 0 Karl van Linne assigned 2 latin names to each species the genus name which is shared by similar species and the species name which is individual I Known as binomial nomenclature o Danvin saw that species shared characteristics with other species because they had common ancestors I This was called type specimen 94 How Does the System Work 0 From 2 Kingdoms to 5 0 First only plants and animals 0 More kingdoms created to accommodate the exceptions I Protists I Fungi I Monera bacteria 0 Existence of a 3rd type of cell called Archaea called for the addition of the category Domains I Domain Archaea newly discovered cells I Domain Bacteria Kingdom Monera I Domain Eukarya All Kingdoms of eukaryotic cells 0 Complete Classification Domain Kingdom Phyladivision Class Order Family Genus Species OOOOOOOO 131 Important Events in the History of Plant Life 0 The First Cells 0 Abiotic process a process occurring in the absence of life 0 Heterotrophs rely on other organisms for food 0 Autotrophs a cell with the ability to provide its own food 0 Photosynthesis o Chemoautotrophs cells that can extract energy and build organic compounds from inorganic acids I Not very successful 0 Photoautotrophs cells that could trap the energy of sunlight to make food I Uses means of the pigment chlorophyll to trap energy of sunlight I Produce carbon dioxide I Found in all 3 domains 0 There is one group of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria o Multicellularity in Plants 0 Chloroplasts adopted into plant cells by the endosymbiotic theory 0 Multicellularity offers I Opportunity for cellular specialization I Decreased vulnerability to death and natural changes 0 How do Plants Protect Themselves in Dry Conditions 0 Epidermis and cuticles act as barriers to diffusion o Stomata are pores on the underside of the leaf that allows air and water to pass I Stomata are composed of two guard cells on each side 0 Vascular Plants 0 3 evolutionary plant lines I Ferns seedless vascular I Conifers gymnosperms I Flowering plants angiosperms