Week 1 Lecture notes
Week 1 Lecture notes NTR 108
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ndidiamaka Okorozo on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 108 at University at Buffalo taught by Temple, J L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Nervous System Neuron a cell building block of the nervous system 0 Soma neuron cell body 0 Nucleus 0 Processes fibers emerging from the cell body gt Dendrites gt Axons could be myelinated or not 0 Tracts group of axons connecting different parts of the brain gt When tracts cross from one side of the brain to another they are said decussate gt An axon from a presynaptic neuron the neuron that is transmitting a signal projects to the postsynaptic neuron Nuclei group of neurons Gray matter cells appear gray in dissection White matter axons appear white in dissection 0 Neurons differ in 0 Size amp shape of soma 0 Destination of axon O Myelination of axon 0 Numbers and branching patterns of its dendrites 0 Communication is done electrically within each cell action potential and chemically between cells transmitters gt Synapse an area of communication between two neurons Process of Comuunication 0 Axon from the presynaptic neuron travel to the postsynaptic neuron 0 Axon terminals create synapses on the synaptic cleft between the two neurons 0 Neurotransmitters are released and they bind on receptors on the post synaptic neuron Types of communication gt Axodendritic between an axon of a neuron and the dendrite of the other gt Axosomatic between an axon of a neuron and the soma of the other gt Axoaxonic between two axons of two neurons Terms Ventral stomach side Dorsal refers to back side Brain Cerebral hemispheres cerebral cortex amp subcortical structures Cortex has four lobes gt Frontal gt Parietal gt Occipital gt Temporal 0 Different cortical region deals with different function motor sensory language etc Sulci infoldings on brain Gyri surface folds on brains Note that the patterns of sulci and gyri is similar but different in different parts of the brain Brodmann an anatomist that numbered different areas of the brain based on their functions gt Hippocampus memory gt Basal ganglia deals With movement cognition gt Diencephalon 0 Thalamus O Hypothalamus Midbrain 5 Cerebellum 4 Pons 3 Medulla 2 543 and 2 are in the brain stem Cranial nerves Deals With gt all the sensory information that emerge from the head hearing vision olfaction taste VVVV and touch gt motor signals to muscles of the head 12 pair olfactory optic oculomotor trochlear trigeminal abducens facial auditoryvestibular glossopharyngeal vagus spinal accessory hypoglossal Spinal cord gt Motor control of muscles gt Sensory input from the body encased in bone protection Has four divisions gt Cervical gt Thoracic T1 T12 gt Lumbar L1 L5 gt Sacral S1 S7 Afferent innervation by sensory signals to the brain Efferent innervation by motor signals from the brain to the body Sensory dorsal Motor ventral Dolphins have the most similarity in the complexity of brain With humans
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