Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes ANSC 350
U of I
Popular in Cellular Metabolism in Animals
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 350 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bryan White in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Cellular Metabolism in Animals in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter 6 slides 637 09092015 Temperature dependence of catalysis Temperature can catalyze reaction increase rate 0 Increasing temperature will eventually lead to protein denaturation E 5 ES enzymesubstrate complex Two models have been developed to describe formation of the enzyme substrate complex Lockandkey model substrate binds to that portion of the enzyme with a complementary shape Induced t model binding of the substrate induces a change in the conformation of the enzyme that results in a complementary t v vmaxs Mid1aeisMenlien Inlt W max Reaction velocity V Sulbstrate concentration S gt tiii ilblv ithe Km the higher the affinity of the substrate catalyst 12Vmax KM vmaxs vmaxs vmax KM S S S 2 Lineweaver Burk Plot L KM i V Vmax V max Y m o x b Inhibitors change the rate of a reaction 1 Temp 2 pH ionization state 3 s 4 inhibitors Vmax is related to the turnover number of enzymeaso called kcat Reversible inhibitor a substance that binds to an enzyme to inhibit it but can be released Irreversible inhibitor a substance that causes inhibition that cannot be reversedaka suicide substrate competitive inhibitor binds to the active catalytic site and blocks access to it by substrate noncompetitive inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site inhibits the enzyme by changing its conformation Competitive inhibitor changes Km does nothing to vMax Noncompetitive inhibitorLower the vMax don t affect Km CDC De nition quotAntimicrobial resistance is the result of microbes changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of drugs chemicals or other agents to cure or prevent infectionsquot Modes of Antibiotic Resistance Mutation to gene 0 Gene Encoded Mechanisms o Modification of the antibiotic 0 Degradation of the antibiotic o Modification of the antibiotic target 0 Ef ux mechanisms Microorganisms of Most Interest Enterobacteriaceae 0 Normal enteric bacteria including E coli conditional pathogens causing urinary tract infections wound infections and septicemia 0 Related pathogens including Salmonella Shigella and enterotoxinforming E coli Pneumococci Staphylococci Enterococci Camphylobacter 0 Common problem with soldiers Antibiotic Dosage and Usage 0 Agricultural use de ned 0 At subtherapeutic levels Improve growth and feed ef ciency Reduce morbidity and mortality Reduce subclinical disease Improve reproductive performance Improve health and wellbeing of animals Veterinary use de ned 0 At higher prophylactic and therapeutic levels Prevent disease in exposed animals Treat diseases FDA Proposed categories of Drugs 0 Category I o essential for treatment of a serious or life threatening disease in humans 0 don t use in animals 0 Category II 0 Drugs of choice or important in treatment in diseases that have the potential to turn serious 0 Category III 0 Not very important quotCanary in the Minequot Paradigm Anecdotal accounts of physicians encountering treatment failures with farm familiespresumable long term exposure 0 No concrete evidence of higher incidence of treatment failures in farm workers or farm animals A Contrarian s Long View 0 In 19605 a self described quotmilitant opponentquot to increasing use of antibiotics in agriculture 0 Change of heart 0 Economic bene ts 0 More ef cient animal growth 0 Less land needed to produce additional feed 0 Less land needed for disposal of manure Opposes resistance to monitoring programs
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