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by: Kathleen Tann

Day 5 and 6- INTRO. GEOGRAPHY GEOG 221

Marketplace > Kansas State University > GEOG 221 > Day 5 and 6 INTRO GEOGRAPHY
Kathleen Tann
GPA 4.0
Intro to Physical Geography
Julie L. Commerford

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About this Document

Atmosphere and Air Temperature
Intro to Physical Geography
Julie L. Commerford
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Tann on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 221 at Kansas State University taught by Julie L. Commerford in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/15
DAY 5Lecture Notes Troposphere where we live in o All living things emit EMR This comes from the sun s energy Io mimm 9f Atmc im Constant gases that are same proportion Nitrogen78 of total gases and Oxygen Variable gases that differ in proportion water vaporabsorbs and stores heat energy moves with air ow and moderates temperature Carbon dioxidecritica for photosynthesis and counterradiation Ozoneforms when gaseous chemicals interacts with upper atmosphere with light energy and is pollution when on ground level Greenhouse Effect 0 Atmosphere traps longwave radiation Counterradiationredirects radiation back to the surface Chloro uorocarbonsCFCs are breaking down ozone allowing more UV radiation to reach surface 0 Ozone holes can form naturally and varyingly ParticulatesMicroscopic bodies carried in air Liquidcloudsrain Solidsnow hail smoke pollutants Helps precipitation form Absorbs energy impacting temperature Negative environmental effects Flow of Solar Radiation 0 Heat transfers from hot to cold 1 RadiationElectromagnetic waves 2 Conductionheat through contact like touching hot pan on a stove 3 Convectionupward movement of heat boiling water In Atmosphere 0 Absorption gasesparticulates interrupt ow of radiation by gaining heat 0 Re ection redirected radiation returning to space 0 Albedore ectivity Scattering redirection Direct Radiation uninterrupted ow radiation 25 75 gets absorbed re ected and scattered 1 Absorbed Radiation by earth s surface and stores heat 2 Sensible heatheat can be sensed and measured 3 Latent heathidden heat Gets lost by 0 Evaporation Lost in space Indirect Radiation radiation redirected down to surface 1 Re ected Radiationenergy bounces off surface depends on surface albedo 2 Scattered Radiationenergy redirected or de ected Global Radiation Budgetbalance between incoming and outgoing radiation Net Radiation is difference between incoming and outgoing radiation values 0 Around equator is radiation surplus DAY 6Lecture Notes Troposphere Lowest layer most active Where weather happens Majority of nonmarine life Tropopauseupper limit Higher over equator and lower over poles thickness varies by latitude Temperature decreases as altitude increasesEnvironmental lapse rate Warmed by longwave radiation Stratosphere Above troposphere Contains ozone that lters UV Temperature increases when altitude increases Stratopauseupper limit Mesosphere Above Stratosphere Coldest Temperature decreases as altitude increases Mesopause upper limit Thermosphere Uppermost layer Gases sorted based on molecular mass Temperature increases as altitude increases 0 Solar reaction causes molecules to vibrate creating kinetic energy Aurora BorealisNorth hemisphere and Aurora AustrialisSouthern Hemisphere 0 Energy from solar wind interacts with molecules in outer layer of thermosphere Surface and Air Temperature 1 Heat Energy energy of motion of molecules and is measured as temperature 2 Latent Energyheat energy stored in molecular bonds that is released or gained when there is a change in state like ice melting 3 Sensible Heat 0 Atmospheric temperature kinetic energy within an unit space of air 0 Surface temperaturekinetic energy contained close to Earth s surface 0 Air temperaturedegree of warmth of portion of atmosphere 0 Fahrenheit95C32 o Celsius59F32 o KelvinC273 Human Interactions Wind chill index 0 Calculated using air temp and wind speed Heatlndex Using air temp and relative humidity Factors that In uence Air Temperature 1 Latitude 2 Seasons and length of day 3 Time of Day Local Factors in uence Air Temperature Maritime Location near large body of water Continental Location surrounded by landmasses Maritime Effect Water heats more slowly storing energy Water mixes with cooler water so it is constant temperature Continental Effect Land heats quickly not storing energy Can cool down very quickly Human InteractionUrban effect on Temperature 0 Dark surfaces have high sensible heat 0 Less water on surface and vegetation Heat generated by human energy use like electricity 0 Other factors o Altitude Topography 0 Wind ow patterns Annual Range in airface Temperature Consistent warm in tropics and equatorial region 0 Maritime in uence in South hemisphere smaller annual temp ranges Less land South hemi 0 High latitudes in North hemi Continents have greatest range


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