Intro Sociology Chapter 5 Notes
Intro Sociology Chapter 5 Notes Soc 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1020 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lambert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 1020 in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Intro Sociology Buckel Prof. Lambert Chapter 5- Social Groups and Formal Organizations Groups Within Society A category is not a group (bald people not a group- they may not share any more than being bald/values and norms may differ) Primary Group- intimate, face-to-face contact that helps individuals form their identity o Family, friends o Producing a mirror within- internalizing the views which becomes our lens Secondary Group- larger, more anonymous, impersonal, formal o Based on shared interests, activities, or members interact based on statuses Ex) Voluntary organizations o Can break down into primary groups Ex) Friends at school/work In-groups vs Out-groups o In-groups Loyalty and belonging o Out-groups Antagonism/hostility between groups Ex) school rivalry o Implications for a socially diverse society Traits of in-group seen as virtues while the same traits in out-groups seen as vices Can lead to twisted perceptions Reference Groups o Groups we refer to when evaluating ourselves o Expose us to contradictory standards Social Networks o People who are linked to one another by the groups they belong to o Stanley Milgram The Small World Phenomenon Study “six degrees of separation”- people are connected by six people Group Dynamics Group Dynamics- how groups influence us and how we influence groups Group size affects stability and intimacy o As size increases: Stability increases while intensity and intimacy decrease More formal structure and specialized roles develop Dyad Triad Coalitions -Smallest group -3 people This occurs when two -2 people -Interaction changes people in a triad align -Most intense and and is reduced between themselves against one intimate human group the first 2 members -Unstable: ex) Ex) husband-wife plus marriages, close new baby friendships The larger the group: o Greater diffusion of responsibility o Increase in formality o Division into smaller groups Leadership Leader- people who influence the behaviors, opinions, and attitudes of others o Don’t necessarily hold a formal position Types of Leaders: o Instrumental (task-oriented) o Expressive (socioemotional) Leadership Styles: o Authoritarian- one person dominates a group o Democratic- everyone has an opinion and equal power o Laissez-Faire- “hands off” o Leadership styles change in different situations Ex) in a war zone, you wouldn’t want laissez-faire or even democratic leadership, you’d want one leader to make a decision Ex) class-camping trip Group Dynamics, Peer Pressure, and Authority Power of Peer Pressure o Asch Experiment- study on conformity Power of Authority o Milgram Experiment- administering shocks, turning up voltage 1960s Ex) study about Nazis following orders and doing what they were told to do, however horrific their actions were The Game of Death- fake game show in France Global Consequences of Group Dynamics- Groupthink Groupthink- a narrowing of thought of a group that leads to a perception that there is only one “right” viewpoint and one “right” course of action; to suggest an alternative would be seen as confrontational and disloyal o Ex) Columbia space shuttle disaster- one part of the shuttle was faulty and everyone conformed to say “it doesn’t matter”- the shuttle exploded, killing everyone on board o Ex) President Roosevelt, Pearl Harbor, and the Vietnam War Preventing Groupthink o Access to information
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