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Chapter 4 notes

by: Kirsten Swikert

Chapter 4 notes Psychology 100

Kirsten Swikert
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

class and book notes on chapter 4
Intro to Psychology
Mark Graves
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Consciousness • Deals with our awareness of ourselves and the world around us • William James described consciousness as a stream of thoughts , it is continuous • Today’s view is that consciousness is a state of awareness of ourselves and of our world • States of consciousness: levels of consciousness ranging from alert wakefulness to deep sleep • Waking states of consciousness o Focused awareness: a state of heightened alertness in which one is fully absorbed in the task at hand § Consciousness is selective; we can fil ter out extraneous stimuli o Drifting consciousness (daydreaming): a state of awareness characterized by drifting thoughts or mental imagery § Daydreaming: a form of consciousness during a waking state in which one’s mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasie s; generally, involve mundane aspects of everyday life, tend to daydream when bored • We blink more when our mind wanders, reducing the amount of information coming in to the brain § We tend to be happier when focused, a wandering mind is not a happy mind o Divided consciousness: a state of awareness characterized by divided attention to two or more tasks or activities performed at the same time § Part of the mind is on auto pilot while the other part is thinking about other things § Altered states of consciousness: states of awareness during wakefulness that are different than the usual person’s waking state ; the outside world fades out of awareness • Occur when daydreaming, meditating, using mind altering drugs Sleeping and Dreaming • Why we sleep: we spend one-third of our lives sleeping o Protective function o Energy conservation o Restore bodily processes o Consolidate newly learned information into lasting memories o May strengthen immune system • Circadian rhythm: the pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that ocregularly each day o Controls many different body process in a 24 -hour cycle o Biological clock: a clocklike mechanism in the hypothalamus is responsible for regulating our sleep-wake cycles o Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): regulates our sleep -wake cycles, locat ed in the hypothalamus • Melatonin: our sleep hormone o Light causes it to decrease (morning) from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at nightfall • Jet lag: a disruption of sleep -wake cycles caused by the shifts in time zones that accompany long-distance air travel o Internal body clocks do not adjust easily to time shifts associated with changes in time zones or shift work The Sages of Sleep • Stage 1: theta waves, small, irregular brain waves, a light sleep • Stage 2: theta waves, sleep spindles and mixed EE G activity o Starts about 2 minutes after Stage 1, m ore time spent here than any other stage • Stages 3 and 4: delta waves, progressively more in 4 than 3, deep stages of sleep, difficult to wake someone from stage 4 o Sleep walking, sleep talking, bed wetting o After Stage 4, there is a brief return to Stages 3 and 2 • Stage 5: REM sleep (rapid eye movement), majority of dreaming happens during this stage, brain activity is as high as when awake though the muscles are relaxed o The state of sleep that involves rapid e ye movements and that is most closely associated with periods of dreaming ; plays an important role in memory consolidation o Also referred to as paradoxical sleep because of the high levels of brain activity and the inability to move, leaving the person prac tically paralyzed • With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and REM sleep increases o The average person goes through 4 or 5 sleep cycles a night o As the night goes on, stage 4 sleep disappears and we progress faster to REM sleep • Stages 1-4 are categorized as non-REM (nREM); nREM dreams are more thought-like Brain Wave Patterns • Electroencephalograph (EEG): one of several devices used by researchers to determine how our bodies respond when we sleep o Measuring sleep: about every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages § Measures right and left eye movements, muscle tension, brain waves • Ordinary wakefulness: fast, low -amplitude beta waves o Beta waves: correlated with alertness and problem solving • Relaxed wakefulness: slower, rhythmic alpha waves o Alpha waves: associat ed with resting and relaxation • Stage 1 sleep: small, irregular brain waves • Stage 2 sleep: appearance of spindle shaped waves called sleep spindles • Stage 3/4 sleep: appearance of large, slow delta waves • REM sleep: similar to ordinary wakefulness • Delta waves: slow, rhythmic brain wave patterns associated with deep sleep • Activation synthesis hypothesis: the proposition that dreams represent the brain’s attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that occur during REM sleep o Random electrical activity in the brainstem is interpreted by the cerebral cortex to create a story line Dreams • Wish fulfillment theory: Freud believed that dreams represent the deepest wishes, urges, and desires of our unconscious • Manifest content: the events that actually occur in your dream • Latent content: the true, underlying meaning of a dream, disguised by symbols o Lucid dreams: involve being aware that one is in a dream state , less frequently being able to control the dream that is occurring • Why we dream: no one really knows, there are theories though o Help sort through possible solutions to everyday problems and concerns o Work through emotional crises or traumas • Dreams lack logical thought in ordering of events of conscious thought Sleep Deprivation • Fatigue, emotional irritability • Health problems: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary disease • Cognitive problems: impaired attention, reaction time, cognitispeed and accuracy, motor coordination, decision making , impaired memory, academic performance • Greater vulnerability to accidents o One of the most common causes of motor vehicle accidents Sleep-Wake Disorders • A diagnostic category of psychological or mental disorders involving disturbed sleep patterns • Insomnia: trouble falling asleep, trouble remaining asleep, trouble returning to sleep after nighttime awakenings, and persistent early morning awakening o Sleep is a natural function that cannot be forced o Most common sleep disorder • Narcolepsy: the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep o Sleep attack usually lasting 15 minutes, it only consists of REM sleep • Sleep apnea: a frequent, reflexive gasping for air that disrupts sleep ; temporary cessation of breathing during sleep o More common in men and obese people o Caused by a structura l defect (an overly thick palate or enlarged tonsils • Nightmare disorder: frequent, disturbing nightmares that interfere markedly with normal sleep o Children are especially prone, usually occurs in REM sleep • Sleep-terror disorder: involves panic-laden night terrors that seem to be unrelated to dream content; repeated episodes of intense fear during sleep, causing the person to awake abruptly in a terrified state o Primarily affects children, usually outgrown by adolescence • Sleepwalking: when persistent and chro nic, may be more than a passing phase and may indicate a sleep-wake disorder o More common in children than adults


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