Historical Geology Week 8 Notes
Historical Geology Week 8 Notes GEOL1005
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
March 1, 2016 Carboniferous o Euramerica Laurasia Sits on the equator Warm climate Low pole-to-pole temperature gradients Kaskaskian Transgression o Global sea level rise o A lot of deposition of clastic material and limestone o Williston Basin Contains a lot of clastic and shallow marine materials Bakken Shale oil Fine grained, clastic material End of the Mississippian o Another glaciation o Starts in the late Mississippian Late Permian o Change in the climate High pole-to-pole temperature gradients Tropical at the equator but frigid at the poles o High O l2vels 35% PAL Early Pennsylvanian o Absaroka Through Permian Sea levels have gone down again o Collision between Euramerica and Gondwana May have happened in pulses Between what is going to become Africa, South America and the South-East coast of the United State Chain of mountains form Supercontinent of Pangaea Ocean is called the Panthallasic Ocean o The down warping of Euramerica causes the sea level to be outpaced by the land transgression o Sea level rises and falls extremely quickly Alternating terrestrial and marine sediments Cyclothems Pangaea / Alleghenian Orogeny o Allegheny and Appalachian Mountains South East North America o Ouachita Mountains Africa o Atlas Mountains North West Africa Late Permian o No glaciers o Climate: warm, low pole-to-pole gradients o Rise of arid and semi-arid areas Deposition of sand dunes and evaporate minerals Things are drying out in the centers of the continents Pennsylvanian o Low lying - inundated with water o Forests coal forests Ferns and fern-like plants Sphenopsids “horsetails” Lycopods (big trees) Cordaites (big trees) o These forest provide coal and petroleum Thick layers of plants Undecomposed o Coal Plants die and pile up Heavy and continuous growth Accumulate low O e2vironment Water Stay buried interlayered sediment Application of pressure from the overlying material Increased temperature Forces water out Breaks down complex hydrocarbons Releases: CO a2d methane o Plants peat lignite bitumen anthracite March 3, 2016 Pennsylvanian o 35% PAL Higher concentrations of oxygen in the atmosphere Knowing the anatomy and the physiology of living animals helps to interpret fossils Arthropods o Sectioned o Breathe through openings in their sides In each segment No lungs, no pumping system Openings are called spiracles Lead to a series of tubes that branch out all over the body Passive system Diffuses throughout the body Bigger tubes = more oxygen can come in Limited by the other things this organism may need (organs, legs, etc.) Distance that it can move is proportional to the concentration of oxygen More oxygen there is in the atmosphere, the farther the atmosphere can diffuse More oxygen in the atmosphere, the animal can get bigger o Very large arthropods during the Pennsylvanian Oxygen level there was a peak in the concentration in the atmosphere during the Permian Tetrapod o Evolved and diversified into many forms through the Late Paleozoic o A lot of them still had gills o Still very small o Some moved to freshwater habitats o Solved the problem of respiration developed lungs o Stronger limbs and ribcages support their weight on land o Solved a lot of problems regarding feeding on land Separate head from body develop a neck Can move their heads independent from their body Amniota o Invent the egg o Egg before the Amniota Around the yolk is the membrane Around the membrane is jelly Permeable to water means it can dry out Doesn’t allow gas exchange No support Limits size adult Ties to the water o Amniota fixes these problems Puts a hard shell around it Has multiple membranes Shell Support and allows gas to pass through it Allows gas exchange facilitated by the membranes Permeable to gas but not permeable to water Can be laid on land o First Amniotes that we see show up in the early Pennsylvania Nova Scotia “Joggins” site o Synapsida Mammals and mammal-kin 70% of all Amniotes o Reptilia Only 30% of all Amniotes Synapsids o Pelycosaurs Herbivores and carnivores Very diverse Elongate spine of the vertebrae o Terapsids Really big herbivores More erect posture, can move a lot faster due to the structure of their legs Very diverse group Cynodonts Shows up at the end of the Permian Cyodonts o Late Permian Pangaea: primarily southern hemisphere 95% of marine life goes extinct 75% of everything living on land goes extinct We know more about the marine extinction than the terrestrial extinction Plant diversity is cut in half We just don’t have many good examples Only 4 of 35 terrestrial animals live past the boundary Trilobites go extinct o Anoxia Lowered levels of oxygen in the ocean Warmer water oxygen is less soluble in warmer water Lack of mixing in the ocean at the time warmer climates o Hypercapnia Higher CO i2 the oceans Harder for oxygenate tissues o Huge increase in Volcanism at the end of the Permian Example: Siberian Traps --. 337,000 km of flood basalts Carbon dioxide and methane This warms up the atmosphere very quickly Flood basalts were spewing out into shallow seas o Methane hydrate 13di12nt or ice C/ C sharp drop
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