Tissues & Skin Notes ( Chapter 5 and 6)
Tissues & Skin Notes ( Chapter 5 and 6) BIOL 103 - 07
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BIOL 103 - 07
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kasandra Strunk on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 103 - 07 at University of Indianapolis taught by Nelson H. Kraus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Tissue Organization Monday September 7 2015 1039 PM Tissue groups of similar cells amp extracellular material that perform a certain function gt E protectionmovement Histology study of tissues EPITHELIAL CONNECT IVE MUSCLE NERVOUS a 39 FUNCTION 39 STRUCTURE 39 AMOUNT PRESENCE OF EXT RACELLULAR MATRIX VVVV Extracellular matrix varying amounts of protein fibers water and dissolved molecules gt E glucose 02 51 Epithelial Tissue Surfaces Linings Secretory Functions Epithelium one plus layers of packed cells with little to no matrix LINES BODY ORGAN CAVITY COVERS BODY FORMS MOST GLANDS Characteristics 39 Cellularity little extracellular matrix Polarity Apical Surface outermost layer exposed to external environment or internal body space Basal Surface where epithelium is attached to connective tissue 39 Attachment to Basement Membrane 3layers El Lamina lucida El Lamina densa El Reticular lamina Avascularity lacks blood cells Extensive innervation detect changes 39 innervation supplied with nenes High Regeneration Rate Functions 39 Physical protection Selective permeability gatekeeper Secretions Sensations Neuroepithelium houses cells responsible for senses Classification SIMPLE EPITHELIUM 39 One layer 39 Direct contact with basement membrane 39 Functions Filtration 39 Absorbatio n Secret io n Found in Lungs Intesti n es Blood vessels STRAIFIED EPITHELIUM Two or more layers Only deepest layer touches basement membrane Looks like a brick wall Functions Structural support 39 Better protection Found in 39 Skin Esophagus 39 Bladder PSEUDOSTRATIFI ED EPITHELI U M Looks like more than one layer but really only possesses one All attached to basement membrane Not all reach apical surface Nuclei at different levels making the layered appearance SQUAMOUS Flat wide and irregular shaped LUUKb KtI LlltI IIUUIIllg Nucleus appears flatten ed CUBOIDAL As tall as wide Nucleus is spherical and center COLUMNAR Slender taller than wide Looks like a column Nucleus is oval TRANSITIONAL Polyhed ral 39 Flatten ed s used in places where tissue goes from being distended to relaxed El ie the stomach Simple Epithelium Nonciliated Simple Columnar Absorb and secrets Found in digestive tract Ciliated Simple Columnar Contains cilia microscopic hairlike structures or organelles that extend from the surface Secrets mucin Helps in the movement of mucus Found in oocytes uterine tube amp bronchioles Ciliated Pseudostraited Columnar Movement of mucus Function protection Found in Large airways Nasal cavity Parts of III Pha rynx III La rynx III Trachea III Bronchi Nonciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Function protection Contains microvilli Any of the minute hairlike structures projecting from the surface Found in Male urethra Epididymis Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized Superficial layers dead layers Filled with keratin Found in skin Nonkeratinized Alive at the apical surface Found in Oral cavity Throat Esophagus Glands Exocrine glands Secretions through a duct ie Sweat glands Mammary glands Salivary glands Unicellular no duct close to surface Goblet cell Multicellular has duct close to surface Acini cluster that produces secretion Acini combine with the duct 52 Connective Tissue Connective tissue most diverse abundt and widely distributed tissue Functions Supports Protects Binds 0 Examples F Tendons muscles to bone Ligaments bone to bone Fat Cartilage Bone Blood VVVVV Mesenchyme embryonic connective tissue The origin of all connective tissue Basic Components gt Cells Protein fibers Ground substance Resident cells stationary cells housed within connective tissue Supports maintains and repairs matrix Types of Resident cells Fibroblasts Flat with tapred ends Most abundant type Produces fibers and ground substance Adipocytes Fat cells Appears in small clusters Mesenchymal Embryonic Divide occurs when damage occurs to repair Fixed macrophages Large and irregular shape Derived from white blood cells Present throughout matrix Engulfs damage pathogens Stimulates immune system Wandering cells Leukocytes white blood cells III Plasma III Macrophages III Mast cells Protection bones protect organs Adipose cushionsprotects Support and Structure Framework for the body Cartilage opens airways Binding Liga metns Tendons Dense irregular tissue Connects skin to muscle underneath Classification of Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Loose Dense III Loose types Areolar unconfined collagen some elastic fibers and highly vascularized ltgt Abundant ground substance 0 Found in the subcutaneous layer 0 Surrounds organs nerve cells muscle cells and blood vessels Adipose composed of adipocytes 0 Brown adipose generates heat found in infants 0 White adipose stores energy Insulation O Iound In the suocutaneous Iayer F Reticular 0 Provide support and stability 0 Support organs or lymph nodes 0 Contains fibroblasts and collagen fibers III Dense types F Cartilage glassy irregularly arranged chondrocytes covered in perichondrium 0 Supports forms most of fetal skeleton 0 found in nose trachea larynx bones ltgt Hyaline cartilage F most common type of cartilage F Chondrocytes areirregularly scattered F Surrounded by perichondrium F Resembles grape soda through a microscope 0 Elastic cartilage F Abundant elastic fibers that form a mesh Chondrocytes and perichondrium present Allows flexibilty Maintains flexibility Found in External ear Epiglottis of larynx F Bone osseous connective tissue 0 More solid and less flexible than cartilage 0 Matrix F Collagen F Glycoproteins F Calcium salts Calcium phosphate 0 Osteocytes bone cells F Regular 0 Limited ground substance 0 Abundant collagen ltgt Resistant to stress in ONE direction VVVV F Irregular ltgt Bundlesclumps of collagen 0 Support and resistant to stress in all directions 0 Found in liver kidneys skin spleen F Elastic ltgt Fibroblasts and elastic fibers 0 Stretch and recoil movement 0 Found in F Arteries F Trachea F Vocal cords FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE Blood contains red blood cells white blood cells and platlets all surrounded in plasma F RBC transports oxygen and C02 F WBC immunity F Plasma transports nutrients waste and hormones Muscle Tissue Skeletal long and cylindrical striated Multinucleated Attached to bones Cardiac Short Striated Branched One or two central nuclei Involuntary control Found in myocardium heart wall Smooth Nonstriated Short One central nucleus Involuntary control Nervous Tissue Neurons receive transmit process impulses Glial cells protect nourish and support neurons Membranes Body membranes Formed from epithelial layer Bound to underlying connective tissue Serous fliud Derived from plasma has two layers Parietal layer lines inside of body cavity Visceral layer covers surface of internal organs Reduces friction Serous cavity Potential space for serous secretion Between parietal and visceral layers Cutaneous membrane Skin Composed of keratinized stratified epithelium epidermis and an underlying connective tissue dermis Skin Hair and Nails Wednesday September 9 2015 356 PM lntegument skin that covers the body lntegumentary System skin and it39s derivative Nails Hair Sweat glands Oil glands sebaceous Dermatology the study and treatment of skin gompositjons and Functions of lntegument Layers O Keratinized stratified squamous epidermis O Dense irregular connective tissue dermis O Subcutaneous Hypodermis 0 Made of areolar and adipose connective tissue Epidermis Layers deep to superficial O Stratum basale O Stratum spinosum O Stratum granulosum O Stratum lucidum only in thick skin O Stratum corneum contains living keratinocytes other two are dead cells Stratum Corneum O Anucleate lacking a nucleus O Made of 2030 layers of dead keratinized cells Tightly packed cells 0 Migration 0 From basale to corneum 2 weeks alive 2 weeks dead 1 month total life span Stratum Lucidum 23 layers Pale Featureless Filled with eledin mature keratin Stratum Granulosum Keratinization starts Stratum Spinosum Made of Daughter cell from keratinized stem cell comes from basale layer Epidermal dendritic cells immune cells to fight infection in epidermis Stratum Basale Single layer of cuboidal or low columnar cells 0 Contains 0 Kerationocytes o Melanocytes o Tactile cells Skin Color Made from 0 Melanin Carotene Hemoglobin Thick vs Thin skin 0 Thick 0 Found in palms or soles 0 Contains all five skin layers o Sweat glands o No hairoil glands 0 Thin o No stratum lucidum 0 Hair 0 sebaceous glands o Sweat glands Skin markings Hemangioma anomaly that results in skin discoloration due to blood that multiply to form a benign tumor Capillary hemangiomas strawberry colored birthmarks that are present at birth and disappear in childhood Cavernous hemangiomas strawberrycolored birthmarks that occur in adults that could last a lifetime Friction ridges appears in fingerprints palms soles and toes Dermis Layers Papillary layer composed of areolar connective tissue 0 Dermal papilla small extensions of dermis to the epidermis o Epidermal ridge creates an egg carton shaped connection with dermal papilla Reticular layer 0 Made of dense irregular connective tissue Surrounds hair follicles oil and sweat glands nerves and blood vessels Subcutaneous Hypodermis Areolar and adipose connective tissue Pads and protects Energy reservoir 0 Insulation Functions of Integument Protection I 0 Prevention of water loss and gain 0 Metabolic regulation 0 Cholecalciferol vitamin d3 synthesized from asteriod precursor by keratinocytes when exposed to UV radiation 0 Calcitriol what cholecalciferol is coverted to when it reaches the liver and Mdney Secretion and absorbtion Immune function 0 Temperature regulation 0 Vasconstriction vessels narrow which allows body to conserve heat 0 Vascodilation vessels become wider to release heat Sensory reception Transpiration release of water vapor when not sweating Structures Derived from Epidermis Nais Part of nails 0 Free edge 0 Nail body pink 0 Nail root 0 Nail bed layer of epidermis under nail All these parts make up the nail plate Lunula white semicircular area at the end of the nail o It is white because stratum basale obscures the blood vessels underneath Hair Lanugo unpigmented appears in last trimester before birth Vellus replaces lanugo lightly pigmented 0 Found on upper and lower extremities Terminal coarser hair pigmented and longer 0 Found on scalp eyebrows eyelashes Hair bulb made of epithelial cells swelling at base where hair originates in dermis living cells Hair pailla composed of small amount of connective tissue containing tiny blood vessels and nerves Root zone of hair extending from the bulb to the skin surface Shaft third portion that extends beyond the surface ll MALui J 1 LL And u LL L ch l39l39dll39 lil dLllXZ dedCenL LU Llle pdpllld Ill Llle UUIU lVIedulla soft core of matrix made of soft keratin Cortex flattened cells closer to the outer hard surface Follicle oblique tube surrounds root Connective tissue root sheath Epithelial tissue root sheath Arrector pili thin ribbon of smooth msucle o Stimulation by 39 Emotions 39 Cold temperature Results in Elevated hair Muscle contracts 0 Le goosebumps Exocrine Glands of Skin Sweat glands lVIerocrine found in epidermis 39 Coiled and tubular 39 Most common 39 Main function THERMOREGULATION Apocrine 39 Transports things to hair follicle Sebaceous gland Sebum oilywaxy secretion 0 Keeps hair lubricated o Bacteria killing properties