Week 1 Lecture Notes: Microbiology 101
Week 1 Lecture Notes: Microbiology 101 101.0
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Markowski on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101.0 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Microbiology 101 Week 1 Notes 922015 Introduction Microbes Any organism not visible to naked eye 0 About 3 lbs of microbes onwithin a person 0 Measurement 1 micronmicrometerpm 0 Size Ex Virus smallest 65 nm lt bacteria 1 pm lt Microbial Eukaryote 60 pm 0 Very Small Cells 0 Surface area to volume ratio is different larger sur ace area Rapid growth o Diffusionadequate for these small cells 0 Cell size is important for separationremoval of microbes ltration Ex 2 micron lter size is sufficient to lter bacteria but not a virus Whv Microbes Ecosystem Model systems for research Practical applications food biotechnology medicines biofuels etc Health and disease in humans Agricultural importance Earlv Microscones oAntony van Leeuwenhoeck 167039s 0 Discovered microbes called them quotanimalculesquot and red blood cells 0 Built 1St microscope oLight Microscopy low resolution 0 Stains to increase contrast Gram Stain grampositivepurplegramnegpink Acidfast stain Endospore stain 0Electron Microscopy high resolution Pobulations of Microbes Colony visible mass of cells formed from division of one cell over 10quot9 cells Classi ed by cell structure most common 0 Prokaryote nucleoid vs Eukaryote nucleus Classi ed by morphology shape 0 Bacillus rod mostly bacteria 0 Spirochete corkscrew o Coccus spherical o Spirillum gently curved Classi ed by metabolic type 0 Carbon Source 1 Autotrophs x C02 1 Heterotrophs use organic material 0 Energy Source t Phototrophs use light t Chemotrophs use chemicals Phylogenetic classi cation best 0 Universal phylogenetic tree based on evolutionary relatedness L Bacteria Archaea o Branchesevolutionary past 0 Tipstaxa groups 0 Nodescommon ancestor Euka rya 942015 Bacteria Common Features Prokaryotic cell structure Mostly unicellular Asexual Great metabolic diversity Important disease agents Maior GramNegative Lineages 0Proteobacteria Ex E Coli o Diverse amp abundant oSome pathogens Cyanobacteria o Oxygenic photosynthesis oSpirochetes o Corkscrew shape 0 Some pathogens 0Bacteroidetes 0 Extremely abundant in human microbiota Maior GramPositive Lineag Firmicutes 0 Thick skinthick cell wall 0 Some pathogens 0 Important in food industry Actinobacteria o Filamentous growth pattern 0 Some pathogens 0 Some produce antibioticsother meds Archaea Common Features Proka ryotic Unicellular Asexual Great Metabolic Diversity 0 NO important disease agents General Someextremophiles 0 Ex thermophiles temperature halophiles salts acidophiles acidity o More abundantwidespread than thought 0 Soil ampocean 0 Associate with many organisms plants animals protists Methanogens famous archaea 0 Produce methane o Abundant in environment 0 Obligate anaerobes Euka rya Common Features Eukaryotic structure Unicellular colonial or multicellular mostly unicellular Asexualsexual Some metabolic diversity Important disease agents 0 Microbial protists some cause disease Ex phytophthora infestans the plant destroyer cause of late blight Giardia Lambia natural water sourcescause disease in humans Eukarval Diversitv nrotists algaegreen plants fungianimals gt The fungi o Absorptive heterotrophs often saprobesrecycle organic material 0 Unicellular or multicellular yeasts lamentous fungi dimorphic fungi have yeast and mycelial forms switching between the two depending on temperature Often reproduce via spores 0 Important for biotechnology food production and disease 0 Reproduction Asexualsexual reproductive spores hyphae grow into aeria hyphae branch and then disperse 0 Can cause disease common in plants O Unicellular fundi veasts Filamentous Fundi Divide by mitosis or budding Multicellular Saccaromyces cerevisiae breadalcohol Weblike bodies mycelia Candida abicans microbiota Reproductive system amp myceiamade ofhyphae Mushrooms Mildews Molds Backup and Compare Bacteria Common Archaea Common Eukarya Common 39 VVVVV Prokaryotic cell structure Mostly unicellular Asexual Great Metabolic Diversity Important disease agents gt Proka ryotic gt Unicellular VV gt gt Asexual Great Metabolic diversity NO important disease agents Eukaryotic structure Unicellular colonial or multicellular mostly unicellular gt Asexual or sexual Some metabolic diversity Important disease agents microbial protists some cause disease