JUS 444 - Week 4 Notes
JUS 444 - Week 4 Notes JUS 444
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kali Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JUS 444 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richter in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Environmental Justice in Environmental Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
JUS 444 Week 41 0 Video 0 Education leads to reduced populations developing countries populations are increasing at an exponential rate whereas developed countries are declining or stable 0 Why people do not have children Options Idea of time Cost 0 China Not enough jobs so why have children when they don t have a job 0 Xenophobia a fear of other cultures who don t think or act like you 0 Principles of Environmental Justice 0 First national people of color environmental leadership summit 1991 second summit in 2002 0 International gathering of E activists form all 50 states and internationally o UCC commission for Racial Justice Toxic Waste and Race 1987 the biggest issue is racism 0 Environmental racism is the problem and environmental justice is the solution 0 Began with environmental racism but now includes environmental classism etc Pulido Overview 0 White privileges need to be deconstructed 0 Why does racism need to be reconsidered Race is a 39materialdiscursive formation Need to know the history of these places to understand why people live the way they do and why they aren t happy with that 0 Political representation 0 Three major issues Contributing to narrow de nition of racism Emphasis on individual facility siting Role of intentionality Uncritical approach to scale lack of recognition of sociospatial pattern over time and geography 0 Methodology Her method to contribute this study Using different analogies a study of why things are the way they are 0 Local maps and statistics census looking at similar studies primary looking at federal policies and secondary someone who is writing about the constitution sources and demographic patters Logic behind putting these TSDF s facilities here the land is cheap no representation no one is protesting economically unproductive into something that makes money economically logical Environmentally racist the idea that there are no political representation for people to protest here There are patterns where there are facilities in other near dominant black areas Site made possible through historical patterns of racism White privilege De jure by law De facto By practice Historically black lives don t matter as much as white lives Legacy of Redlining and White Privilege Devaluating land based on race sets historical pattern even without de jure policies black people were not equal to white people Even after they were considered equal they still weren t able to live in these areas Opposed the mixing of races Redlining literally having lines as to where certain people can own a house Problems with siting and intentionality Individual sites and intentional acts of racism are not an effective indicators of ER 0 Does not recognize that the construction of social spaces are rooted historically in ideas of race Omits connections between racism and production of pollutedpollutable spaces and bodies 0 Where does it occur and where does it not occur what bodies are we allowing to be polluted for economic purposes Scale why is it important 0 Explain patterns and processes 0 Not site but larger zones affected by ER 0 Look at establishment of TSDF s over time for clearer pictures of how sites are created out of 39disposable land next to poor communities 0 Need to examine these relationship industrial zones suburbs inner cities and race Case study LA 0 Three issues toxic waste TSDF s and air toxins Methodology maps statistical data historical studies current environmental studies 0 Findings Geographic area South and Central LA county Latino and African Americans disproportionately affected Historical Geography Why LA 0 LA is both unique and part of a pattern at the same time 0 Unique two different historical patterns Blacks and Latinos from different historical patterns Pattern suburbanization 18481920 5 growing population land speculation immigration and xenophobia industrial suburbs De jure segregation people know where they can and cannot be If you buy a house where you know you 39shouldn t be people will chance you out WWII city expands suburbanization defense spending and housing boom FHA incorporation Institutionalized and de facto segregation separate but equaD JUS 444 Week 42 Read Beck quotRisk Societyquot for Tuesday pr cis 4 Read ToffolonWeiss et all quotWho wins who losesquot for Thursday 0 Review Pulido 0 Problems with siting and intentionality Individuals sites and intentional acts of racism are not effective indicators of ER part of it life for redlining whites are on top 0 Does not recognize that the construction of social spaces are rooted historically in ideas of race race is not biologically rooted value of skin color Omits connections between racism and production of pollutedpollutable spaces sacri cing other nations and races when we turn on our AC pollute other places 0 Scale Temporal or physical scales Examines the patterns Note site but larger zones are affected by ER Look at TSDF s over time for clearer picture of how sites are created out of disposal land next to poor communities expendable land with races living on them that are now considered expendable Need to examine these relationships industrial zones suburbs inner cities and race industrial plants ruin the amount of money a house is worth which makes it difficult for the races living there to ight cant sell property if its near a plant 0 Three issues Toxic waste TSDF s and air toxins Findings 0 Geographic area South and central LA county 0 Latino and AfricanAmericans disproportionately exposed to pollution 0 Why LA Good weather LA both unique and part of a pattern at the same time Racially diverse 0 Historical patterns 18481920 5 SHE LOVES HISTORICAL CONTEXT why things are the way they are 0 Growing population land speculation immigration and xenophobia industrial suburbs De jure segregation who gets to dominate the area and resources over other races 0 City expands suburbanization defense spending and housing boom FHA incorporation Institutionalized and de facto segregation people can legally separate themselves races classes gender culture as long as everyone has equal land upward mobility and social class predicated on separation of race and class 0 Contemporary moment 3 factors that affect ER 0 Immigration new waves of demographic more women 0 Residential mobility spatial containment and history limit movement and lowwage labour and industry 0 Economic restructuring industrial zones attracting more polluting enterprises lack of economic diversity threat to populations 0 ln Summary Need to expand de nitions of racism beyond siting and intentionality to historical sociospatial patterns and ideologies Examine reach of white privilege the idea that whiteness is an inde nable standard Whiteness cannot be examined without there being a problem even though we examine all other races Examine history of industrial and suburbanization patterns Policy scholarship and political movements need to look at larger picture to make distribution of risks and bene ts more understandable and equitable quotNot to lay blame but to become aware of larger political and more consequences of our actionsquot 34 inherently moral issues these are peoples lives and we need to be understandable of that o The Rise of Phoenix 0 Phoenix and metro area 6th largest metropolitan area in the US 45 million inhabitants 16 million in city limits 5th largest in US 0 1940 65000 0 Economy based on the 5 C s economic bedrock cattle copper cotton climate and citrus 517 sq miles one of the largest urban areas in the US Bolin Geography of Despair 0 Overall point Phoenix itself is also built on racial segregation similar to LA Historical lack of planning land use regulation and lack of public investment private land given the money that did not help the public Historically rooted patterns of racism and racial divestment Persistent and diverse forms of racism Transportation and industrialization 0 Phoenix 1885 pop 3000 0 Historical Phoenix 18601930 Bolin looking at Similar to Pulido s Spatial Control segregation central to racial formation of spaces in the city only white people have access to space resources etc Formation of spaces in city Segregation of space and race white police forces 0 quotSpatial purification to prevent racial intermingling Cultural Control Based on superiority of class and race naturalized through practice and discourse quotAmericanizationquot for domestic servants Stigma of quotdirt lth and diseasequot to justify separate spaces still see spatial distribution even in 2015 today 0 Postwar Phoenix 1940 s to 1980 s Sharper divide between industrial and residential areas with minorities trapped in industrial areas o Redlin o Defen Industries becoming more toxic stock and sewage to manufacturing Spatiality divided by rail rst then roads divided community Population growth economic expansion and rapid suburbanization ing Lack of infrastructure and access as well as low income housing opportunities blacks or minorities were not given any mortgage which meant they couldn t afford or have access to buy a house in all white suburbs serelated spending 1950 s Probusiness culture Low corporate taxes Nonunionized workers cheap labor Subcontractors lax environmental policies Decentralization white ightdowntown desert Expansion of freeway Businesses move in don t hire locally high unemployment rate in the valley 0 Conclusion 0 Conte 0000 People are stigmatized based on historical perceptions of race Places they live become stigmatized and rigidly excluded as well disproportionate effects of risks and bene ts Not intentional today but rooted in historic practices and modern economics that are difficult to recognize and address Things are changing Desegration enforced 1960 s EJ movement 1980 s EJ concerns addressed federally 1994 station of hazardous sites Continue changing Zoning laws Remediation More rehabilitation of affected zones
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