Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes 71942 - BIOL 213 - 003
Popular in Cell Structure and Function
Popular in Biology
70955 - BIOL 104 - 001
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jena chalmers on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 71942 - BIOL 213 - 003 at George Mason University taught by Charles R Madden (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Cell Structure and Function in Biology at George Mason University.
Reviews for Week 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/11/15
BIOL 213 Week 2 98911 Chapter 2 Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life cont 0 Solutions a substance solute dissolved in a liquid solvent 0 Aqueous solutions solutions with water as the solvent are important in biological organisms Living cells are 7080 water Qualitative analyses identi cation of substances involved in chemical reactions 0 Quantitative analyses measure concentrations or amounts of substances Mole amount of substance in grams that is numerically equal to its molecular weight 0 Avogadros number number of molecules in one mole 6022 x 10quot23 molecules per mole o 1 molar solution is 1 mole of a substance dissolved in a solvent to make 1 liter of solution 0 Acids substances that release H ions 0 H is just a single positively charged proton 0 Strong Acids acids that fully ionize in solution every molecule breaks into ions Ex HCI H2504 COOH 0 Weak Acids acids that don t fully ionize in solution Some of the acid breaks up into ions but some stays in its original form EX CH3COOH Bases substances that accept H ions 0 Strong bases dissociation is virtually complete Ex NaOH 0 Weak bases the reaction is incomplete and reversible Ex HCO3 NH3 NH2 Reversible Reaction can proceed in either direction 0 Depends on starting concentrations of substances 0 Show by an arrow that goes both ways ltgt Ionization of strong acids anol bases in water is practically irreversible Ionization of weak acids anol bases in water is somewhat reversible Every 1 in 10 million water molecules ionizes 0 Into OH hydroxide ion and H30 hydronium ion 0 Thus water is a weak acid and a weak base m negative of the logarithm of the H molar concentration Won t have to do any calculations on test just recognize formula 0 pH of water is 7 water has H concentration of 10quot 7 M 0 Lower pH gt greater acidity 0 Higher pHgt more basic Buffer mixture of weak acid and its correspondingconjugate base or weak base and its correspondingconjugate acid 0 Maintains homeostasis keeps more constant pH o Carbonic acidbicarbonate buffer maintains homeostasis in pH in the blood 0 Law of Mass Action addition of a reactant on one side of a reversible system drives the reaction in the direction that uses up that compound 0 This helps explain how buffers work iClicker Quiz 1 Important Topics 0 An explanation that attempts to explain an observable phenomenon is called a hypothesis 0 A call is the smallest structure that is considered living 0 Metabolism can be described as all conversions of matter and energy taking place in an organism o Noble gases elements on the right of the periodic table with 8 electrons in their valence shell are very stable and unlikely to react with any other atom o lonic bonds from between atoms that have very different electronegativities such as Lithium low electronegativity and Flourine high electronegativity Chapter 3 Proteins Carbohydrates and Lipids Living organisms are carbonbased Monomers are building blocks of polymers Molecules in living organisms 0 Main onesMacromolecules proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids lipids Macromolecule polymer with molecular weight exceeding 1000 Lipids are not really polymers but we treat them as a special kind of macromolecule for convenience 0 Others Alkaloidscaffeine opium dyes and pigments antibiotics Biochemical unity the four different macromolecules are present is almost the same proportions in all living organisms and have similar functions proteinsgtnuceic acidsgtcarbohydratesgtlipids Functional groups groups of atoms with speci c chemical properties and consistent behavior that are linked to hydrocarbons study theseneed to be able to recognize the functional group and know its properties pictures in book pg 40 will help 0 Can increase hydrophilic nature pure hydrocarbons are insoluble in water 0 Can make molecule more chemically reactive o Hydroxyl Polar Hydrogen bonds with water to help dissolve molecules Enables linkage to other molecules by dehydration Makes alcohols o Aldehyde CO group is very reactive Important in building molecules and in energy releasing reactions Makes aldehydes o Keto CO group is important in carbohydrates and in energy reactions Makes ketones o Carboxyl Acidic Ionizes in living tissues to form C00 and H Enters into dehydration synthesis by giving up OH Some carboxylic acids are important in energy releasing reactions Makes carboxylic acids 0 Amino Basic Accepts H in living tissues to form NH3 Enters into dehydration synthesis by giving up H Makes amines o Phosphate Negatively charged Enters into dehydration synthesis by giving up OH When bonded to another phosphate hydrolysis releases much energy Makes organic phosphates o Sulfhyd ryl 2 SH can give up their H and react to form disul de bridge to stabilize protein structure Makes thiols 0 Proteins combinations of 20 amino acids 0 Functions include Enzymes catalytic proteins Defensive proteins antibodies Hormonal and regulatory proteins Receptor proteins Storage of amino acids Structural proteins provide physical stability and movement Transport proteins Genetic regulatory proteins 0 Polypeptide chain single unbranched chain of amino acids Proteins consist of many of these that fold up to create a distinct shape 0 Amino acids need to know the names of these and which groups they belong to they are drawn out in the book pg 44 but knowing the formulasshapes is not necessary Have carboxyl and amino groups so they function as acid and base Damino acids right are basically useless Lamino acids left are the ones useful in Living organisms Amino acids are grouped based on the properties of their side chain 0 Positive Hydrophilic Side Chains o Argenine Arg o Histidine His 0 Lysine Lys Negative Hydrophilic Side Chains o Aspartic Acid Asp o Glutamic Acid Glu Polar but Uncharged Side Chains o Serine Ser 0 Threonine Thr o Asparagine Asn o Glutamine Gln o Tyrosine Tyr Special Cases 0 Cysteine Cys o Glycine Gly o Proline Pro Nonpolar Hydrophobic o Alanine Ala lsoleucine lle Leucine Leu Methionine Met Phenylalanine Phe Tryptophan Trp Valine Val Carbohydrates monosaccharides monomers combine to form polysaccharides polymers OOOOOO Nucleic acids there are 4 kinds of nucleotide monomers Lipids noncovalent forces maintain interactions between lipid monomers o Isomers molecules with same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms 0 Structural isomers differ in how atoms are joined together 0 Optical isomers occurs when carbon atom has four different things attached to it Asymmetric carbonChiral carbon has four different things attached to it gt will have two optical isomers Enantiomers molecules that only differ in spatial arrangementmirror image isomers o Cistrans isomers involve double bond between carbons Cis remaining two atoms or groups of atoms are on the same side Trans remaining two atoms or groups of atoms are on opposite sides Condensation Reaction polymers are formed when water is removed from monomers and covalent bonds are formed between the monomers 0 Also called dehydration reactions 0 Energy is added to system 0 Hydrolysis Reaction polymers are broken down into monomers by addition of H and OH 0 Hydrolytic enzymes enzymes that break down polymers into monomers 0 Energy is released
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'