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intro to biology week 4 of notes

by: Katelyn Scott

intro to biology week 4 of notes BIOL-L 105

Marketplace > Indiana University > Biology > BIOL-L 105 > intro to biology week 4 of notes
Katelyn Scott
GPA 3.0
Introduction to Biology
T.J. Sullivan

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this is the 4th week of notes for this class
Introduction to Biology
T.J. Sullivan
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 09/11/15
91714 5 Carbohydrates sugars lGeneral chemical formula CHZOn lRange of molecule sizes a monosaccharides onesugar D oligosaccharides fewsugars Ch 5 Introduction to Carbohydrates D polysaccharides manysugars 91714 91714 72 5 Monosaccharides Building polysaccharides b Ring tomis of glucose CH20H aGlucose Oxygen from the 5 1 0 5carbon bonds to 391 H th 1 b lt39 inirirfgrstfu ctrjfeu quot399 Ho 3quot 2739 KOquot lMonosaccharides can be JOlned together 393 c c u u u u anml J I CI us1ng a glycos1d1c linkage H r gt H quotmegquot lSimilar to the pattern we saw With amino s no l o CW BGluco ac1dsprote1ns and nucleic ac1ds DNA but quot H 9 m with these there are more than one way H gtc To 7 c they can connect 0 c c H L I39m x 91714 91714 74 Glycosidic linkage lGlycosidic links form between OH groups on individual monosaccharides IIndividual monosaccharides can have many OH groups so many ways they can be attached together 91714 91714 76 Building polysaccharides a Formation of ocglycosidic linkage iii Glucose uGlucose e firion 590 5 5 H OH H OH H no on H0 on r on 1 H OH quot2 ll t omen Maltose cupquot l 5 5 39 H H H H H c c c i on u on u K r o i HO 0 c g oquot a 2 14 a 2 1 H 0 glycosidic H OH 91714 77 Building polysaccharides b Formation of Bglycosidic linkage udealactose uGlucose a u tl 39lgOH cup 5 5 HO m 120quot quotEM 3quot y OH H 0quot H H I N no H 3 2 3 I H OH 1 H OH quot2 i 3140 Laclose H on 5i i i HO O i i l0 0 c C on M I v H H H quotol 0 on i I2 hM 5 H on mmng cup V 91714 Building polysaccharides lThese bonds are l 4 bonds because those are the carbons that are connected I l 4 bonds are the most common but they re not the only way monosaccharides can connect to each other I What does this mean 91714 H 3 U Common polysaccharides 79 511wch rm 2 Potysattharldes Differ in Slmclure Wuhan heman Stuaw quot11Mquotan Stratum Sunk xlvu39v u Lluo l39 a uwu k mun 3 3 1 C 1 gal 9quot o 39V quot3 0 1 b JII H H J j39z tllidlu a r aez39r39rbshwmn 1nv a I v nro39 39H Ghtogen Inf 39vtn Iw hxnxr N n mm mum myquot n ma 5quot 91714 91714 H LZI U Common polysaccharides I Starch Chain of xglucose molecules Forms a helix Has a l 6 glycosidic link 30 monosaccharides I Forms branches Used for energy storage 91714 H ll U Common polysaccharides I Glycogen Chain of xglucose Has a l 6 glycosidic link 10 monosaccharides Used for energy storage 91714 3 U Common polysaccharides I Cellulose Polymer of Sglucose Geometry of Sglucose means the neighboring sugars are ipped in relation to each other No helix but parallel strands can form H bonds with each other Can make thick fibers great for support in plants 91714 91714 41F 83 i7 Common polysacchar1des Carbohydrate funct1ons I Cellulose Side View aw on mm s 1 Polysaccharldes Differ in Structure cellulose molecules XLW I low Threedining Savan a quot39 quot l J Fibers crisscross to lt5quot 39 make a sheet on whoquot I Very strong gm 3 l 1 Also enzymes that break oc l 4 glycosidic Q FaniaIsl39n39dk 0 quotmilquot quotvangm ho ru39 W quot quot10quot enzymes that break 3l4 glycosidic bonds are rare 91714 91714 41F 41F 8 Carbohydrate functions Common polysaccharides SlJvMWV mm H Polysaicharides Differ in Structure WarnHe Omniul Sumac mMlmumiool Sunlqu lCellulose is indigestible by us IDietary fiber are carbohydrates 91714 91714 91714 H C 3 U Common polysaccharides WWW 010 UmJlur A 31439quot bch u l HOM 23 77 quot eg 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity Outside Oligosaccharide I Anchored in our cell membranes are proteins with small carbohydrates attached to them f 4 63903996quot6co1 I vllllllll 39 aquot i A lllllltll am of cell Glycoprotein I Glycoproteins 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity I Our cells need to outside Oligosaccharide identify which ones are us and which are not I Glycoproteins can also be used to label types of cells Inside 4 of cell Glycoprotein eg muscle nerve etc 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity Outside Oligosaccharide I Glycoproteins are displaying information Inside of cell Glycoprotein 91714 91714 E 97 CH Ll Review question It will taste A salty The enzyme amylase found in human saliva B sweet breaks a l4glycosidic linkages in starch If you hold a saltine cracker in your mouth long C 50W enough it Will taste D bitter n j Review question Lysozyme is pa rt of the system The enzyme lysozyme found in human A CirCUIatOFY saliva tears and other secretions breaks B Digestive down 5 l 4glycos1dic linkages in peptidoglycanWe would most accurately C NerVOUS class1fy lysozyme as part of our D Immune system s 91714 6 0 91714 Ch 6 Lipids and 91714 Lipids 102 membranes 91714 103 Hydrogen bonding a Water is polar b Hydrogen bonds form 5 between water molecules Electrons are pulled toward oxygen 639 8quot H H u x k 8 8quot k DMFMwlu n 91714 b Fatty acid Kc0 Carboxyl group H20 H CCHZ 2 CH 2 I C containing H2 3H molecules that are Hzc 2 mostly nonpolar and H 63quot ggifmmquot hydrophobic 2 2 H26 H cCHZ 2 H CgtCH2 3 91714 1 4 0 Lipids b Fatty acid Kco Carboxyl group H20 I C H bonds share H c 2 2 electrons equally so gtCH2 they don t form HzcCH 2 hydrogen bonds won t H2Clt CH gtHydrocarbon d1ssolve in water 26 2 chain gtCH2 I The hydrocarbon Hzc chain is hydrophobic quotaccquot gtCH2 H3 91714 Types of lipids I Fats Assembled from 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule a Fats form via dehydration reactions Glycerol H0 0 H20 Dehydration reaction Fatty acid DL u IFmurEumm 1 91714 91714 Types of lipids I Fats Assembled from 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule b Fats consist of glycerol linked by ester linkages to three fatty acids Ester linkages 91714 Types of lipids I Fats are very good for energy storage C H bonds contain a lot of energy I Chemical differences between fats are caused by variation in the fatty acid tails 107 b Fats consist of glycerol linked by ester linkages to three fatty acids Ester linkages 91714 Types of lipids I If 2 carbons in the chain form a double bond the fatty acid is unsaturated unsaturated fewer H atoms than maximum possible I Unsaturation causes a shape change in the fatty acid Double bonds cause kinks in phospholipid tails me on H20 CH2 cu Unsatu rated fatty acid Saturated fatty acid 91714 91714 4 Types of lipids Types of lipids Copyrmlo The McGrawMu Znnames Inc Pemussuon tenured by rmoductm a display Copngtt DTM McGradel animusx Inc Pmmrssm tenured bu moductm a dismay v 4 w w 4 u a J J 4 quot3 11quotquot 9 quot carboxyt group Cl Hii o bend caused by double bond J CreHsaoz carboxyl group b Steanc acid a saturated tarty acid no double bonds found in butter a Oleic acid a monounsaturated fatty acid one double bond found in canola oil 91714 91714 41 41 Lipids Fats and oils Lipids Fats and oils Unsaturated fats Setwated fats canola oil Key quotu saturated tat 9395 monounsaturated at samer 9 I 79 3933 polyunsatuvatcd tat I Double bonds mean fatty acids 31 cholesterol Can t 13 t gether No double bonds tight quotquot quot I Usually found in plants 39 SOlidS I can be mono or pols I Usually found in animals butter 62 5 3 unsaturated coconut oil 82 7 Numbers In percent gt 91714 91714 91714 Types of lipids IUnsaturated fats can be hydrogenated Add H to eliminate double bonds lHydrogenate liquid vegetable oils gt solid fats shortening IIncomplete hydrogenation trans fats 113 I U Types of lipids I Steroids Large 4 ring structure with the hydrocarbon tale Includes cholesterol a A steroid Polar hydrophilic Nonpolar hydrophobic Schematic Space lling R 91714 CH Li Steroids n 39r I w y vr 39 I39n Lu IDI39II otuwnl lg obvulun us up u w us u m H Lquot In I 39 IrF Qlul amp amp tum Il Innr ol KRJ39Jvh Ii vul Q 54 usemu ul y 91714 91714 CH U 0 Ster01ds i inhuman lh m scanWWKmOAQqu 91714 10 91714 Types of lipids b A phospholipid I Phospholipids 2 fatty acids l 5333 glycerol l phosphate group with a small charged I molecule attached 333332373 L g hi gr Basic building blocks of membranes J but not the only one 91714 1quotTypes of lipids b A phospholipid I Key is the hydrophiliC Polar head interacts with water the nonpolar tail hates water head with the hydrophmci hydrophobic tail amphipathic I Nonpolar tail I g v I The polar head yd39 ph b39 Er 91714 I Phospholipid bilayers I Phospholipids don t dissolve in water because 12 the molecule is nonpolar IPhospholipids will organize so that the waterloving 12 will be near water and the waterhating 12 will be away from water 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers a L39P39dquot Hydrophilic heads mice es interact with water Hydrophobic tails interact with one Water another Hydrophilic heads 3 Lpd interact with water bilayers ug i 1 Hydrophobic tails interact with one another 91714 11 91714 121 122 Phospholipid bilayers l Phospholipid bilayers l I Phospholipids are not I These structures will bonded to each other form spontaneously v quot 39 4 0 0 o co39o o o WWW 119111 UH 1 39 3 60 39 I Free to move around llllllll l 9 ll Hl l 1111111311 lllll 39 I No energy is required for these to assemble I Bilayers are uid f 3 123 Phospholipid bilayers l Fluid membranes Phospholipids are in constant lateral motion but rarely flip to the other side of the bilayer omuwuwum v 12 91714 Phospholipid bilayers I Since micelles and bilayers form spontaneously they can be made for research 91714 Phospholipid bilayers a Planar bilayers Artificial membranes I Since micelles and bilayers form spontaneous they can be made for research 91714 127 Phospholipid bilayers I These can be used to test the permeability of biological membranes to specific compounds b Artificialmembrane experiments How rapidly can different solutes cross the membrane if at all when 1 Different types of phospholipids are used to make the membrane 2 Proteins or other molecules are added to the membrane 91714 Phospholipid bilayers I Very powerful technique lots of control b Artificialmembrane experiments How rapidly can different solutes cross the membrane if at all when 1 Different types of phospholipids are used to make the membrane 2 Proteins or other molecules are added to the membrane 91714 13 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers ILipid bilayers are selectively permeable Small nonpolar molecule can move through easily quickly Large molecules and charged ions molecules cannot Why 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers High permeability glycerdl Large uncharged l po ar molecules Glucose sucrose Permeability scale cmsec Low permeability Phospholipid bilayer 130 91714 139 Movement across membranes IMolecules like 02 and CO2 move easily through membranes without any energy being expended I Diffusion 91714 Movement across membranes I Simple diffusion Compounds will move from regions of high density to low density Concentrations equilibrate over time 91714 14 Diffusion 2 Diffusion 3 Equilibrium 1 Separation of solutes by lipid bilayer orquot y 91714 91714 q 143 Osmosis Diffusion of water affects the concentration of solutes that cannot diffuse I I Na r N33r H20 I I Na I H20 Na Na Na I I H20 N8r H20 Na I Na I Na I Na I Na H O I H20 Na z I 91714 41 Osmosis 1 Unequal 2 Water concentrations movement across membrane 1 Osmosis Na cannot cross membranes but water can I I Na r N33r H20 I I Na I H20 Na Na Na I I H20 N8r H20 Na I Na I Na I Na I Na H O I H20 Na z 91714 15 91714 H C 3 U Osmosis H E How does osmosis affect cells Water will cross the membrane to balance the concentration of Na on each side IWhat would happen to a red blood cell in Na Na H20 H O W distilled water Na Na Na z there is a bit of salt inside RBCs I H20 Na I H20 Na IWhat would happen to a red blood cell 1n a Na Na high salt solution N Na I H O a H20 I 2 Na 91714 91714 In a high salt solution a RBC will RBCs in high salt solution A get bigger B get smaller c stay the same size D spin uncontrollany 99 5 9 395 91714 16


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