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Final Exam Prepared Questions ARTH 6C Spring 2012 Le Corbusier Put a journal called quotL39esprit Nouveauquot their movement all about pure Forms can be reduced to their basic forms All things are made in simple forms and industry has recreated these object World is organized through eternal laws Are isn39t made to imitate tradition but to use concepts that govern tradition architecture becomes important Architecture producing a modern space and clearing off hundreds of years of growth Curtain Wall Ferro Concrete VolumeMass Robbon Windows quotThe International Stylequot 1920530s expression of volume rather than mass emphasis on balance rather than symmetry radical simplification eliminate applied ornament from design form follows function mass produced forms are privileged The Breuer Chair Uses Cantilever based on design of chair and is balanced Principle develops tenuity Idea of having dynamic equilibrium surfaces interlock with different planes Hugo Ball Dada movement Revolt against logic secret agreements waretc critical of art in its traditional way Synthetic cubism holds no deconstruction qualities Examples include collage putting things together synthesizing of form Anylitic cubism is painting and takes apart the tools of painting lines color shape form Monalisa with mustache and goatee A ready made by du champs mass produced but already there modified Challenging the idea that the artist has to do the majority of the work Makes us wonder quotwhy do we think that is a master workquot Act of iconoclasm attacking a quotsacred image a masterworkquot It calls into question the ways in which we confer value on art and other objects The letters when voiced in french make sexual allusion to the Mona Lisa Joan Miro Birth of World 1925 Freud quotDesire is really what motors our beingquot abstract figure lying down small dots with hairs coming out of them Pattern represents sexual overtones Triangle above figure lines that carry out to one singular dot Max Ernst Two Children Menaced by Nightengale 1924 Frotage rubs the painting over somethings else to determine what he will draw Way of inviting unconscious to shape something Real gate door nob as if they can enter another world Surrealistic Painted Work Salvador Dali Lugubrious Game 1929 Self portrait of Dali on the right Man reaching for statues penis Dali Paranoiac Face 1935 Cultivated relationship with hard and soft Image of a face Went to spanish painting academy and learned traditional format Transformed this into nightmarish landscape The unconscious is supposed to suggest something to us Meret Oppenheim Fur Lined Teacup 1936 Sexual illusions taking liquid out of a vessel mixtu re of textures Man Ray Enigma of Isadore Ducasse 1930 quotAs beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on an operating tablequot Comte de Lautreaumont random not explained enigma Treachery of Image Rene Magritte 1929 Is this a pipe No it39s a representation of a pipe 2 sign systems an image and a phrase Magritte The Key to Dreams 1930 Trompe L39oei 1930s big things happening in Germany a lot of conformity socialism will of the state Goebbels head of propaganda in Germany The avant garde by nature is critical Pablo Picasso Guernica 1936 Response to the nazis Town of Guernica destroyed by bombing Spanish republic commission picasso do to a piece for them at the world39s fair painted in monotone newsprint lamp of liberty electric light tries to capture emotion but not the representation of the actual event The bull is an ambiguous that shows bestiality is winning out Death destruction liberty Paul Padua the fuhrer speaks 1938 The whole family is sitting around and listening to the radio where hitler speaks Look peasant like don39t have much money hiter39s pic on the wall Hardworking and loyal to the 3rd Reich Salvado Dali Construction with Boiled Beans 1936 Bodies dismembered associateed with Spanish civil war Barren landscape Horacio Ferrer Madrid Black Airplanes 1937 Naturalistic approach to depiction of bombing of Madrid How do you convey the message of war in painting straight forward message didactic simple form vs a bit more complicated and thoughtful Great German Art Exhibition Classical parades great day of german art Nazis making images that are easily consumed Degenerate Art Exhibition 1937 Largest display of art hung quickly Modern art makes allusion to unhealthy Stock market crash banks insolvent Migrant Mother Nipomo California Dorothea LangequotDestitute pea pickers in CAquot Mother of seven children Age 32 1936 Short Research Project Submit a brief 12 page description of what you discovered and how you did it Jackson PollockAbstract expressionism when did Pollock and other painters begin to sell their work What ahppened at the Cedar Bar How did the artists share their work What kinds of meetings did they have Did they put on any of their own collective exhibitions How were the abstract Expressionists covered by popular press Rockefeller Center 19319 Diego River commissioned to build these huge buildings Modernity knowledge Man at Crossroads 1934 Diego was a communist believed in shared communal wealth put lenin in the right side of the image holding hands with African americans Left side ladies playing cards Rockefeller featured as well image of crossroads athletics communism or war machines leisure and strikes and syphillis Caused scandal because John D Rockefeller wanted to remove Lenin but Diego refused So who has controls the art form Artwork was supposed to have unifying aspects science labor travel communication American Progress Joseph Maria Sert 1937 Rockefeller center Huge Image Man standing on two collums holding tree Image of Abraham lincoln helping to build modern America allegory Portrait of mexico Today 1932 Painting about mexico from point of view of political exile Man on the left general Caiez big revolutionary has a msk on his chin pretending to be something he isn39t dead workers pay the price of American and Mexican relations Grant Wood American Gothic 1930 Salt of the earth people celebration of America Wood house chapel in the background Question of how to express America WidWest or stable country life Thomas Hart Benton Boomtown 1926 Benton Over the Mountains 1924 The new frontier explorers Men crossing mountains First museum of Modern Art Barr torpedo 1937 Alfred Barr Influences and Directions In Modern Art 1936 Chart of Modern art He compared the trajectory of Modern art to a torpedo French school of paris European outside of paris Atom Bomb Hiroshima August 1945 Problem of avant garde if you39re too out there you are not accessible Clement Greenberg 1939 midterm Avant Garde and Kitsch Art Critic Commercial culture easy stuff problem consumes cultural ideals that are keeping our world alive and separate from nazi regime humanist values reside in art Ad Reinhardt How to look at Modern Art in America 1947 Reinhardt red and blue compilation Jackson Pollock going west 1934 Male and Female 1942 Moon womans cuts the circle 1943 Carneval of the Harlequin suggestive shapes representation of the unconscious Mark Rothko slow swirl by the edge of the sea Biomorphic forms speaks to everyone language that transcends tradition meanings and language Archetypal forms universal shared across the ages regardless of cultures the quotlrascibesquot refused to perform in show because it wasn39t based on abstraction idea against consumption Dada Action is somehow incorporated in the final act Terms Subjectivity Performance Art Feminism Objectification Shigeko Kunota Vagina Painting 1965 Performance Yoko Ono Individuals asked to come on stage and make quotcutsquot video quotHigh Culturequot Avantgarde and Kitch Why is it important What are the stakes Why do people feel so strongyl about these things Freedom and nationalism associated with Abstract Expressionism and the color field painters Action paintingAbstract Jackson pollock Rolland decouni struggle in the painting use drip method about individual process painting outcome important but process is more visible idea of abstraction but also expressiveness abstraction quot counter to everything rational civilized and culture where there are wars more of an applicable message distance from pure consumerism Color Field Painters Rothman and Neuman also get classified as abstract expressionism abstract and expressed Impact of NeoDada and Pop Art on these arguments Jackson Pollock article in Life Magazine tough guy all about the painting quotModern art is Communistic because it is distorted and ugly because it does not glorify our beautiful country our cheerful and smiling people our material progress Art which does not glorify our beautiful country in plain simple terms that everyone can understand breeds dissatisfaction It is therefore opposed to our government and those who promote it are our enemiesquot Rep George Dondero Michgan 1955 Put together a showing in Easter countries This included abstract arts to show them the possibilities of freedom Jasper John Flags 1954 The surface of the painting is moving towards flatness Impure situation sometime he paints it then sees it then vice versa Idea of disengagement is ideal neutralize things the antithesis of expressiveness beginning of push back to abstract expressionism height of abstract expressionism counter to macho gay flag is flat and very abstract image we load all kinds of things into the image abstract representational gestural neutralizes a loaded subject Robert Rauschenberg Erased de Kooning 1953 Instead of revealing and expressing now hiding negative picture not about the expression they want to connect t Abstract expressionism is unique and can39t be replaced But Robert tries to replicate it in Factum 1 and Factum 2 Challenges expressiveness of Pollocks methods Questions the replication of these artworks Get on the cover feature Johns Target with four faces 1955 Incaustic Painting using wax as the basis for the pigment Hit acurately The painting is the Target Jasper Johns painting with two balls 1960 Cut a slit into the canvas and put two balls into it Challenge to masculinity through name Sexual allusion Short brushtrokes Vs Jackson Pollock Full Fathom Five Hip picture of what39s going on in the world starts Pollockimage if romantic artist Coodetached sexy Roy lichtenstein portrait of Ivan carp 1961 Andy Warhol Marilyn Diptych 1962 Mass culture being used by artists and incorporated by their work Questions how do meanings get attached to images Pop art Cool detached sensibility Roy lichtenstein Portrait of Ivan Karp 1961 Andy Warhol Marilyn Diptych 1962 Abstract expressionism first defined by poock39s irreplaceable art strokes vs this one which can be easily replicated and requires none of his original effort How do we make this cool and cultured if everything is easy to imitate If everything is a commodity how can anything be expressive What about our star fixation What does it mean that we can39t differentiate items That everything is mass produced and copied Pain reality personality everything on the surface Vivid color of Marilyn over and over again then the black and white as the film slowly runs out and fades you want something to be meaningful Lichtenstein Crying Girl 1962 Lichtenstein Sponge II 1962 uses Benday dots printing process using three colors to produce one overall color mechanical methodgesture not drip method something very clean cuts and focused Artist commenting on idea of expressiveness Andy Warhol 200 Campbell39s Soup Cans 1962 Atomic bomb 1965 quotThe Factoryquot his work studio Futurists used the newspaper an avant garde group to propel their movement sent out letter to some ppl to ask them about futurism This type of art loses meaning because of repetition Also bring us into contact with reality A work of art is a commodity and is exchangeable any object is equivalent to another one Clae Oldenburg Ascending On caterpillar Track 1969 More political Vietnam war makeup on something like a missile sexualized object sticks straight up reverses A significant point about the painting image is an attempt to resist commercialism and consumerism Barnet Neuman Roshenberg erased picture conbines bed black maket This of a movementartistic group image reading term Picasso Ma Jolie A painting of his girlfriend maybe a painting of a song Analytic Cubism not a collage early 1900 Abstract way to represent image symbolic music notes not symbolic but iconic representation language Obvious that it39s a painting must put thought into it Abstraction call the attention of the viewer Perception Jackson Pollock after WWII Compare to painting above Technique ofpaintingaction vs composed thought out process of picasso39s brushstrokes how far they can push the system of representation Abstract expressionism not about the image more about the act picture of a performance Warhol Soups Pop art Representative of consumer culture Repetitive nature and mindless unclear if he39s embracing of critiquing Doing something new high and low culture Duchamps is known for quotready madequot Architecture Corboussier house Modernity asymmetry international style cantilevers form follows function ribbon windows mass produced objects Why did this happen Wanted architects to be more like engineers new technologies new materials modern architecture should use these to represent modern age Interested in Cantilever baanceintegrate with the landscape prairie style DadazuHch neutral part of switzerland Dada berlin Hana Hawk taking magazines an dmaking colalges Antifascist arta bstraction more political Action painting about individual artist expressing themselves Neo dada Rashenberg and johns Last images on website Plans for a home house beautiul War and bad things happening while things at home still looks nice How do u relate to what39s going on in the world Fred Wilson institutional critique Question 1 Emphasis moved away from subject to the the new way of representation No longer Iconic Cubism More and more abstraction not representational of any subject the processmethod is more important Other systems of representation signs language musical notes Jackson Pollock quotdestroyed paintingquot took away formal elements took away picture as a whole now every dot or line is analyzed you just have the paint now JasperJohns interest in sign and symbols used stencils that said quotredquot painted blue How do we assign these things meaning artist viewer Question 2 Draw on 3 different movements Du ChampsDada work is spontaneousready made How have they changed or defined what constitutes a work of art Picasso cubism Question 3 Social critique andor political change by artists Diego Rivera Mexican mural movement Jasper Johns Andy Wahol covered it up in silver paint 13 most wanted men Fascism Popa rt How does style reinforce the critique Important Readings Rosenberg Capro legacy of Jackson Pollock Greenberg Avant Garde and Kich not in reader Beaudelarie photography is not art Du champs Popart questions what is art mass consumption critique of high art Significance Architecture International Style 1 modeling volume instead of mass 1 Creates a lot of inner space by using minimal framework 2 Removal of ornamentation 3 Balance over symmetry Focus on volume rather than mass Simplicity remove excess form follows function anything that can be mass produces contrast to pop art no ornamentation horizontal windows Curtain wall allows for a lot of windows reinforced wall Use of Steel Also Cantilever organic architecture prairie style materials from the site are used DADA Du Champs bottle rack questions what constitutes art George Gross portrait collage military injustices shine light quotthe unhappy inventorquot WWI coming back and have mechanical body parts uses collage about the needs of individual people more political collage used to the absurd irrationality break away from institutions machine is ubiquitous machine and body merge Berlin DADA WWI occupation obviously about politics less abstract attacks specific events or people Zurich DADA focused on war in general vs what goes on in Berlin while the war goes on quite abstract Neutral country less political critique Surrealism we think a certain way society conforms our mindset Picasso Garnica spanish civil war civilians attacked took it out of spain and left style abstracted and distorted humans like animals antifacist art or abstract style critique facist art how do u convey something though abstraction Read quotLe Corboussier writingquot Colorful painting by Delane Orfalism technology ofshoot of cubism offshoot of cubusm Homage le Ierio Ofirst pilot to cross english channel about movement technological innovation Please prepare the following three questions for the essay portion of the exam for the final Only one will be on the final exam The exam will be closed book Refer to at least two readings in your answer for each of these questions Make sure that you explain the point the author is trying to make or convey the gist of what is being said You want the references to readings to demonstrate a strong grasp of the arguments being made by the respective authors Refer to at least three specific works from three different movements See specific prompts for additional instructions 1 Many critics have argued that modernism has broadened the spectrum of art production by shifting emphasis away from subject matter in order to include a more explicit focus on representational systems That is to say the means of representation becomes a primary subject for many modernist painters Choosing works from at least three different artistic movements use at least three specific examples to explain how this emphasis on representational systems is made evident a The American Action Harold Rosenberg i Not an imitation of the past separate from a School of painting because words are not attributed to art but the artist instead ii Critics need to adapt b 1964 Thirteen most wanted Men Andy Warhol i Mass consumerism 1 Can s beat em join em 2 Feelings of sameness leaves empty feeling ii Gruesome picture over and over again desensitized sterile iii Repetition also adds emphasis iv Kitsch commodities and celbrityies 2 In the 20thcentury a number of artists and artistic movements broadened the definition of what constitutes a work of art through their emphasis on the body the audience the venue the kinds of materials used to make a work and the process of making a work of art Choosing at least three of these categories discuss how these shifts were registered by an artist or movement through at least three specific examples Your answer should draw on at least three different movements a 1961 Claes Oldenburg quotThe Store i Environment mimicks setting of surrounding cheap shops items for sale ii Allan KaprowCollapse of performeraudience boundary iii Alogic dreams no sense of time always present tense iv Ppl dressed in burlap socks and stand still to be part of exhibit v quotimpermanence vi Against post war consumerism b Performance Art 1974 Chris Burden i Physical presence ii Yoko Ono Cut Piece 1 Vulnerabilitiy resistence antiwar active and passive critisicsm of genders iii Acconci self mutilation blind ball toss quotTrademarks 1 conversions Burfns away male hair tucks penis show breasts 2 Ambiguity and focused message 3 Many artists have used their work to engage social critiques andor political change throughout the course employing different techniques and approaches in order to do this effectively Drawing on three different movements each representing a different technique discuss through at least three specific examples how these meanings were conveyed through subject matter and stylistic approach One example must be abstract Note you may use only one example from the 19 century 18001900 Dada is Politisch Dada fair 1920 zurich vs Berlin 1937 Nazis Open Degenerate Art o exposing degeneration of modernist art as intrinsically Jewish and Bolshevik seen by over 5 times as many ppl as quotGreat German Art secret appreciation o Pablo Picasso Guernica 1937 9cubistsurrealist nazi bombings o Portrait of Lenin by Diego Rivera in mural for Rockefeller Center I Recreate Mexican identity based on Mexico39s precolonial past I Mexican mural movement I Response to agrarian revolution and dictator Porfirio Diaz I Started by Jose Vasconcelos I Creation of new identity and nation intellectual social realism Abstract Expressionism Weapon of the Cold War o MOMAeducate inspire strengthen hearts and free wills History of Mexico Diego Rivera From prehispanic civilization to the conquest to the future Fall of Twotihuacan ending with Karl Marx leading the future surrealist vibrant colors distortion fantasy Jasper Johns Flag and target with four faces Suspension of opposites Brush strokes repetitive Was base Encaustic Object And Image Inject sense of time and space into painting Flags everyday object and sacred image visual and verbal Opens Use of everyday signs and conceptual ambiguities alike A few things from before the first midterm Rococo Playful love eroticism frivolous Fantasy Louis XV money lavish showing off Classicism style people are rich and throwing money around Voyage from Cythera Fettes Galante what does this mean Fantasy Mythical scene leisure and fantasy compare with latter scenes of the same scene Neoclassicism varistic naturalistic licked surface illusion history painting how does this relate to the Acamedie style promoted by academy response to Rococo hard and simplified with direct meaning no more frivolity didactic Family and civic duty and how they are related timethe enlightenment art should do something for society approaching French revolution Nobility has moved out to Paris Napoleon17991815 Focus on reality and reason Romanticism Response to enlightenment ideals of Neoclassicism now focused on exotic and fantasy Teaching a lesson guys on a ship where captain is incompetent The government is being by the run people Contemporary issue depicted in art Same subdued color palate as neoclassicism Message Fantasy giving up on rationale More appealing to emotion over intellect use nature to transcend loose brushwork Picturesque In between beauty and the sublime Containment love desire How does the composition work to keep you in the scene sublime awe inspiring nature Realism Very shallow pushing everyone to the front vs David39s balanced composition