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Week 3 Notes

by: Allie S

Week 3 Notes Psyc 3640

Allie S
GPA 3.46
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben

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About this Document

Statistical notes; coefficient variable, Ch. 2
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben
Class Notes
Psych 3640, Clemson, Industrial Psych
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/11/15
Psych 364 91115 142 PM Industrial psychology Fundamentals of IO Psych Importance of work in people s lives Application of psychological principles theory research Work is central in an individual s life Fields 1 Personal 2 Organizational the individual measuring characteristics of individuals 3 Human engineering manipulating the environment to improve work performance Behavior 0 Motivation 0 Personalitybeliefs Evidencebased IO psychology 0 Critical Thinking combined with scientific evidence for decision making 0 Scientistpractioner model 0 Avoid confirmation bias look for info to prove hypothesis is wrong stronger research The past important datesevents 0 Journal of Applied Psychology 0 Estimates of Military value of personalities 0 Note on German recruiting system 0 Practical relations between psychology and WWI Assessing individual qualities and then ALIGNING them with a specific job title measurement of motivation intelligence leadership etc Personality testing and placements The present demographicscareer paths 0 JAP 2008 0 New archical approach to the study of values and value behavior relations 0 Early predictors ofjob burnout o Subjective cognitive effort a model of states and traits 18761930 Hugo Munsterburg James Mckeen Cattel assessed abilities fully mental physical IO made it39s mark during WWI Officers were assessed to see who was fit to be a good pilot office infantry man Needed to test specific characteristics Army Alpha and Beta Testing was formed Alpha literate Beta illiterate used other means to assess 1917 1st PhD in IQ awarded to Lillian Gilbreth about efficiency took brick layers and found ways to enhance performances advanced time and motion studies in the field manipulated environment INSTEAD of personal characteristics Cheaper by the dozen 19301964 Hawthorne studies human relations Human relations movement Theories of motivation Emotional world of the worker started to realize that the state of the worker influenced the effort put into work as a whole Studies ofjob satisfaction Conducted in general electric plant increase the amount of light in a certain section of the plant Carefully measured saw that the performance of the workers INCREASED directly proportional to the amount of light added Noted that the performance ALSO INCREASED when light was dimmed Turns out the physical act of observing the workers was what was actually increasing Establishing relationships with employees helps WWII Job placements Civil Rights Act of 1964 amp Title VII previous experiences shape people s view of the world cause and effect 0 the requirements for success appear different for people of different socioeconomic situations 0 Former characteristic testing was done based on the white sense of the world selfserving biasesdidn t account for background differences 0 Realize that there are unfair differences between racesinequities evoking emotionsovercorrecting judgment Reverse discrimination highlighted existing difference creates more closeknitted groupsexclusion segregate Focuses on creating groups that emphasize DIFFERENCES instead of similarities and forced interactions 0 Groups named in 1964 Race Color Gender National Origin Religion 0 Later added ADEA age 1967 ADA Disability 1990 1888 1892 1913 1938 1941 1958 Cattell Munsterberg Munsterberg Mayo World War II Human Explosion of measures arrives at publishes first publicizes the engineering commercial tests individual Harvard American English text in Hawthorne applied to solve differences Psychological l8 psychology studies aircraft accidents r Association founded 1898 1988 1918 1928 1938 1948 1958 1968 1978 1898 J 1917 l 1923 1932 1945 1964 Cattell World War Scott and Mayo Viteles l8 psychology Civil Rights develops Bingham enlist in Army and arrives publishes becomes Division 14 Act Iitle Vll first develop group intelligence in United first modern of the American Mental Test tests Lillian Gilbreth awarded States text in l8 Psychological rstIU PhD psychology Associa on FRI DAY Future Challenges to IO Psych 1982 S8P founded 1988 Review Early IO psych was all about assessment was motivation a quality Needed to MEASURE qualities and quantify them in a way that could place individuals in the correct job later there was a move towards MANIPULATION of environment to get more work out of them realized motivation isn t necessarily a characteristic able to get more through relationships mood JOB SATISFACTION 0 measured people performance and now satisfactionQUALITY o buttttt testing was not very good at placing nonwhitesmeasuring people of color previous experiences shape people s view of the world cause and effect 0 the requirements for success appear different for people of different socioeconomic situations Today overt sexismracism are not as prominent however there is a veiled sense of racism Week 2 91115 142 PM 10 field Future Challenges The IO field has been dominated by white males 30 women 0 One of the better Psych positions Breakdown of where most IO people take jobs Academic 41 3quot Public Organizations Other 94 AZ Private consulting Organizations 247 22 To get a degree 0 Educationtraining 0 Want to maximize human capita the successperformance of an individual Look at predictors of performance will predict success a Tests projects assessments n Predictors Motivation drive a Motivation is an interaction of a person in a specific context U Need to gain an intelligence test IO Psych needs to be 0 Relevant using Social Media as a tool 0 Usefulefficient Grounded in Scientific Method Concerns Outdated 0 Most of IO Pysch is rooted in the 20th Century Social Media 0 Can you better capture someone s personality via data found in social media is this a representation of a person 0 Can we determine this better than a standard test Are the findings in Journal Articles true 0 Will it withstand time o 100 of the MOST influential studies redone replicated looking for accuracyreplication 0 results 34 were successfully replicated either were never true changed overtime couldn t be repeated well Changes in the Workplace since 1980 0 Personal computing 0 Telecommuting amp virtual teams predicted that half will work at home in the future 0 Videoconferencing Providing a service vs manufacturing goods 0 Nature of work more fluid 0 Teams vs the individual 0 Little stability Familyfriendly workplaces 0 Greater diversity 0 Global workplace interconnection Multiculturalism Cultural Issues to IO Psych Culture defined 0 System in which individuals share meaning amp common ways of viewing events amp objects share sense making 0 Sharing of meanings amp interpretations Interacting with different cultures means having to compromise and understanding in order to merge views on subjects to achieve success Global Culture Organizational Culture Group Culture Individual Cultural self representation BottomUp Center the individual personality own experiences 0 But we operate within circlescultures losing strength as circle widens like an onion Ex Individual student who you are personality Group psych class culture within group Organizational Clemson National Southeast USA Global USA as a whole 0 Why should multiculturalism be important to you 0 Because it allows for more collaborative groups 0 Why is multiculturalism important for 10 psychology 0 So that people are able to understand broader cultural in the workplace 0 When doing business important to know different customs to understand how other people have been shaped 0 Issues surrounding the global economy expatriates amp the West vs the Restquot mentality Hofstede 5 DimensionsFactors lndividualismlcollectivism The degree to which individuals are expected to look after themselves versus remaining integrated into groups lusually the family 0 Power distance The degree to which less powerful members of an organization accept and expect an unequal distribution of power 0 Uncertainty avoidance The extent to which members of a culture feel comfortable in unstructured situations Masculinityfemininity The distribution of emotional roles between the genders with the masculine role being seen as quottoughquot and the feminine role seen as quottenderquot Masculine cultures tend to emphasize accomplishment and technical performance while feminine cultures tend to emphasize interpersonal relationships and communication 0 Longterm versus shortterm orientation The extent to which members of a culture expect immediate versus delayed gratification of their material social and emotional needs Source Adapted from Hofstede G 2001 Cultures consequences Companng values behaviors institutions and organizations across nations i2nd edl Thousand Oaks CA Sage And adapted from Hofstede 0 Hofstede G J amp Minkov M 2010 Cultures and organizations Software of the mind 3rd rev ed New York McGrawHill 2001 Geert Hofstede 20i0 Geert Hofstede BV Adapted by permission Can we create cultural characteristics and factors that are indicative of person Individualism or Collectivism Where does your identity reside o Familyoriented use ofI or we sense of selfimportance USA very individualistic somewhat looking out for self 0 China communal Power Distance 0 Distance between authoritypower figures and the people 0 USA power distance is smaller than in ChinaEast 0 Authority can direct or collaborate o Shapes the place a person has in hierarchy and how they can interact in the caste system Uncertainty Avoidance The willingness to take on a riskstep out of comfort zone 0 USA is fairly low on UA take a lot of risks 0 FranceJapan very high goes along with the collectivism Masculinity or Femininity Gender Role definition and assignmentduties o Shapes the idea of gender and place in society 0 Authority Longterm vs Shortterm Orientations 0 Goals and decisions based on longevity and desired pay out 0 Immediate vs future 0 USA shortterm quarterlydaily reports To engage in a behavior with immediate outcome 0 China more longterm benefits come later these characteristics shape the way people make sense of things must look at each dimension SEPARATELY they are individual not indicative of each othercan t draw conclusions from each other 0 regions may differ ex West coast individualistic SE less so 120 100 c 80 D China 1 1 France 60 39 1 Indonesia c 1 Japan 40 i a 1 El United States 20 quot U l l l l PD ID MA UA LT Key PD Power Distance ID Individualism versus Collectivism MA Masculinity versus Femininity UA Uncertainty Avoidance LT LongTerm versus ShortTerm Orientation Chapter 2 Methods and Statistics is IO Psych Confidence in decisions are based off of evidence scientific is the most assu ng What is science Approach that involves the understanding prediction and control of some phenomenon of interest Science has common methods Science is a logical approach to investigation 0 Based on a theory hypothesis or basic interest Science depends on data Gathered in a laboratory or the field GOALS OF PSYCH 1 describe 2 explain 3 predict 4 control Employing a set of standardized testing that is highly rational logical rooted in the scientific method Hypothesis 0 Variables 0 Controls 0 ExperimentationTESTING Materials Research must be communicable open amp public WANT to be accessible Research published in journals reports or books 1 Methods of data collection described 2 Data reported 3 Analyses displayed for examination 4 Conclusions presented Scientists set out to disprove theories or hypotheses Goal Eliminate all plausible explanations except one 0 Confirmation Bias Selectively focusing on info that confirms theories we already have 0 Preconceived notions that support our own perspectives and skew data goal of science is to DISPROVE a theory 0 Eliminate all plausible explanations say why X does NOT prove Y Scientists are objective 0 Expectation that researchers will be objective amp not influenced by biases or prejudices 0 Can t fall to biases confirmation biases 0 People should draw conclusions from the facts Role of Science in Society 0 Expert witness in a lawsuit 0 Permitted to voice opinions about organizational practices 0 Often an IO psychologist Why do IO psychologists engage in research 0 Better equip HR professionals in making decisions in organizations 0 Higher levels productivity profits motivation 0 Provide an aspect of predictability to HR decisions 0 Need to be able to know with certainty how to manipulate and influence people 3 Research Designs 1 Experimental 0 Random assignment of participants to conditions 0 Random population strata Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace 0 Manipulate variables independent and dependent Have a control group and experimental of random people 0 HIGH degree of control 0 Pros causeandeffect are established 0 Cons Mistaken relationships 2 Nonexperimental 0 Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions 0 2 common designs Observational design Observes and records behavior SurveyQuestionnaire design most common 3Quasiexperimental Nonrandom assignment of participants to conditions DES6N DESCRIPTION Experimental Random assignment of participants to conditions Laboratory Field Quasiexperimental Nonrandom assignment of participants to conditions Nonexperimental No unique conditions for participants Survey Observational SOURCE Adapted from Spector P E 2001 Research methods in industrial and organizational psychology Data collection and data analysis with special consideration to international issues In N Anderson 1 S Ones H K SinangiL amp C Viswesvaran Eds Handbook of industrial work and organizational psychology pp 10 26 London Sage Republished with permission of Sage Publications Inc Books permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center Inc Week 3 91115 142 PM Review 3 types of research design Experimental 0 Random assignment of participants to conditions 0 Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace 0 There are Independent and Dependent variables that are MANIPULATED Independent variable Dependent variable The variable that is BEING MEASURED in an experiment depends on the independent variable a Researchers want to discover if listening to classical music helps students earn better grades on a math exam In this example the scores on the math exams are the dependent variable a Researchers want to know whether firstborn children learn to speak at a younger age than secondborn children In this example the dependent variable is the age at which the child learns to speak a Researchers are interested in seeing how long it takes people to respond to different sounds In this example the length of time it takes participants to respond to a sound is the dependent variable Quasiexperimental o Nonrandom assignment of participants to conditions Nonexperimental 0 Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions 0 Is a form of measurement observations 0 2 common designs Observational design Observes and records behavior SurveyQuestionnaire design most common 0 23 IO use nonexperimental designs Science must be rooted in TRUTH Accurate reliable consistent so we need to form a systematic process to obtain the Truth As IO psychologists people are seen as quantitative data want to be able to make decisions about peoplecompare them scoring helps this So WILL this breakdownscore PREDICT job performance accurately Selfefficacyconfidence experiment people selfscored how confident as to how well they would do on a test 445555555566 need to summarize and organize the data collected construct a histogram xaxis has the 17 scale of confidence yaxis is the of repeats Quantitative data methods Rely on tests rating scales questionnaires amp physiological measures yields results 0 gives a very pure measurement get the puzzle pieces 0 EX Qualitative data Include procedures like observation interview case study amp analysis of written documents Generally produce flow diagrams amp narrative descriptions of eventsprocesses 0 give us subjective insightsconstructs a broad overview of the puzzle 0 EX Interviews 0 Run risk of contaminationbiases mood bias 0 Hypothetical constructs as an explanatory variable not concrete used as a tool used to facilitate understanding of human behavior Quantitative and Qualitative are NOT mutually exclusive Triangulation technique capturing both quantitative and qualitative to hone in a full view of the study 0 Examining converging information from different sources qualitative and quantitative research 0 Combining all aspects to create a holistic view we get puzzle pieces quantitative but need to have an abstract idea qualitative in order to assemble the puzzle Generalizability in research 0 Application of results from one study or sample to other participants or situations 0 The more areas a study includes the greater its generalizability the broader context is derived from more diverse samplings larger number of subjects 0 Want to be able to make findings more generalized more predictable is applying results from one study to a larger scale 0 Every time a compromise is made the generalizability of results is reduced IF more variablesless controls are used it is much harder to pinpoint the results of an experiment versus additional influencers o Generalizability decrease over TIME continual process Time Job Titles Participants Personality consciences as a predictor for job performance 0 Want to sample the ENTIRE organization 0 Measure both confidence and job performance 0 Now any future applicants will receive a confidence test Their scores will determine ifI should hire them based on this exp 0 However if you had just tested engineers job title you cannot expect the same results generalizing isn t possible Control in research Experimental control o Eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret o Standardize the experiment as much as possible control the experience allowing us to measure a SINGLE point Statistical control 0 Statistical techniques used to control for the influence of certain variables Assess other variables that might be making an impact a Ex selfesteem measure selfesteem and performance but maybe mood affects esteem So theoreticaly positive mood may have the correlation SO if you add mood data point you are able to account for it in experiment Descriptive statistics Summarize organize describe sample of data Frequency Distribution 0 Horizontal axis Scores running low to high 0 Vertical axis Indicates frequency of occurrence Central tendency the degree of clustering of the values of a statistical distribution that is usually measured by the arithmetic mean mode or median Score Distributions 3 measurescharacteristics Measures of central tendency 0 Mean the average of the data 0 Mode most often data component repeated 0 Median Once data is arranged low to high middle Standard Deviation variabilityamount allowed to vary before deemed an outlier Variability 0 Standard deviation an averaging the amount it is allowed to vary ie STD 13 means with a mean of 5 can vary fromwithin 33 to 63 o The variance distribution STD 2 The average squared deviation from the mean 0 The range one measure of the amount of error we have Index means measure Histogram shapes Lopsidedness or skew Mean is affected by high or low scores median is not 0 Mean pulls in direction of skew Histograms random data assembled into a graph Positive skew scores are high ranged To the RIGHT of the MEDIAN Negative skew scores arranged at the lower to the LEFT of the Median All depends on where the MEDIAN is ll 10 9 Mean Median Mode 9 Mode 7 7 Median Mean 6 6 Frequency Frequency J 48 10 U 45 55 59 100 Test Scores Test Scores Symmetrical Positive skew Normal distribution Bell distribution STD curves Frequency ll 9 8 7 6 5 A 3 2 l U l D 50 59 int 1 48 100 Test Scores The variance distribution STD 2 Frequency D N a b TI 0 1 co 0 D Test Scores ex salaries histogram McDonald s 18000 Average 55000 CEO 115000000 The CEO is an outlier dramatically skews POSITIVELY MEDIAN is raised Correlation Ex selfefficacy experiment There is a normally distributed curve AFTER the Test we will see distribution of scores on performance 0 Intelligence is 6 Correlation Coefficient but is a STRONG correlation of performance But 0 Intelligence does NOT necessarily cause performance performance does not cause intelligence It may indicate education is a factor environment a third variable influencing BOTH x and y xaxis confidence curve yaxis performance curve zscore how far a single point is from the mean in STD units Scatterplot 0 Displays correlational relationship between 2 variables Regression 0 Straight line that best fits the scatterplot and describes the relationship between the variables in the graph Correlation Coefficient tells in z score units 0 Statistic or measure of association Reflects magnitude numerical value amp direction or of relationship between 2 variables Ranges from 000 and 100 o COEFFICIENT IS THE SLOPE OF THE Z SCORE Correlation Coefficient has a valence and magnitude Ranges from 1 to 1 Positive correlation gt As one variable increases other variable also increases amp vice versa Positive slope Negative correlation gt As one variable increases other variable decreases amp vice versa negative slope Positive linear correlation 100 75 w 1 50 iraining Grade l I l I l I I 25 I I I I I l 0 25 50 511 75 100 Cognitive Test Score High Low Low High rxy 00 Low Low Inferential Statistics High High Low X High High Low Low High rxy 50 X LOW Low High X High Low High Aid in testing hypotheses amp making inferences from sample data to a larger samplepopulation Creating inferences from a study 0 Ex a mental test is given to two groups High school kids and College kids IF the results were that the lower MEAN scoring group was the high school group it could be inferred that education is associated with higher test scores 0 Why can you do this data is an average mean scores representing the group outliers mess up generalizations 0 Include ttest Ftest chisquare test From class 2 Review Correlation Coefficient is a statistical element that tells the amount of correlation between variables 1 to 1 range X gt 05 is statistically significant negative correlation ex the more you drink the less likely you will attend class positive correlation ex the more you come to class higher grade Even IF there is an apparent correlation does not establish a cause effect relationship amp Vice versa ex no correlation between stress and performance BECAUSE there is a curvilinear line line of best fit straight Too low of stress does not increase performance BUT too much stress is overwhelming GOAL of IO Psych 1 Describe Explain Control PREDICT 3 types IO personnel Predicting organizational MANIPULATION Human engineering Environment Past 0 Measuring abilities to match with a job Predict performance 0 Heavily personnel based Need to be able to repeat a test and RELY that it will yield similar results 0 RELIABILITY Need to be able to double check that our info is Validaccurate o VALIDITY TEST Reliability testing 0 The CONSISTENCY of a measure 0 can we predict the outcome of this experiment once repeated Is the conclusion we drew consistent TestRetest reliability 0 Testing to see if over time results are the same consistent answers 0 There is often contamination in experiments 0 Tested with the EXACT same test to same individual Pitfall amount of time between two tests less time consistency of Memory essentially butttt over too much time integrityfeelings may change D But is this due to personal change or testing inconsistencies Not always practical to testretest Reliability coefficient RANGE is 0 to 1 but IF there was a perfect 1 chances are there is an additional factor working ie memory Equivalent forms reliability 0 Type of reliability calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who completed 2 different forms of the same test 0 Can have 5 very similar questions in one test to get a bit of consistency slightly reworded but with the same end meaningmeasurement Pitfall If there are too many questions people lose interest can put a bit more emphasislevel of importance on the first answer in each set U Ex 1 and 2 more related than 1 and 3 But 2 and 3 are closer than 1 and 3 I Take average of all possible correlations Chrombox alpha tells internal reliability within a test a Ex SAT Test a Different tests that measure the same equal info Criterion the outcome the thing we desire Predictor the psychological testing informed to test for the criterion Predictive validity Criterionrelated validity design in which there is time lag between gathering test scores and performance data 0 Able to predict what WOULD have happened had you actually used the test scores to make the hiring decisions 0 Later figure the validity Concurrent validity Criterionrelated validity design in which there is NO time lag between gathering test scores and performance data 0 Test scores are concurring with performance data 0 Give test to CURRENT employees IF performances are good you can use the test later for new hires Still are predicting criterion Construct validity Investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs Content Validity


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