intro to biology week 5 of notes
intro to biology week 5 of notes BIOL-L 105
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
10814 Energy IChemical reactions involve energy IWhat is energy I The capacity to do work I The capacity to supply heat Ch 8 Energy ITypes of energy I Potential stored energy I Kinetic movement 10814 10814 Potential energy Potential energy a r b8 1 Recun Bow Acton When you an a but you 000 I watch the 521mg V041 W W shaoe of the Don I Energy of position or stored energy I Chemical energy I Concentration gradients I Gravitational at veal dvawu 1 Potential 0mm 10814 10814 10814 H I U Potential energy 1 Unequal concentrations across membrane 10814 H 3 Kinetic energy I Energy of motion Thermal Light Electrical 2 Kinetic energy 10814 H 3 Kinetic energy Kinetic energy 10814 What type of energy is this I What type of energy is this potential or kinetic l 2 3 A ball being held off the edge of a tall building Compressed spring A moving car Water behind a dam Light from the projector Gasoline A donut 10814 10814 H I Chemical potential energy Chemical potential energy Glucose lMolecules can have potential energy too 9 e ual at H c2c OH H q i no 4 quot H c quot V lt H H c H SC 1 Mothan W H CH0 C 1quot quotnun51001 gt7 Chemical potential energy Energy lCH bonds have a lot of energy I Energy can be transformed Electrons are shared H equal el nc i u 1 Mothan H can C 11 39Mvvl 5101 by 1 Poion al omrgy 2 Kinetic anorgy 3 Other toms of onowy 10814 10814 10814 EH 1 3 En Changes in energy Changes in energy b l llthE551ENERGV TRANSFORMATION IN AN ATOM L 1 Potential enemy 2 Kinm enemy 3 cum roam a enemy I Applies to atoms too Electrons have the greatest 393939 potential ener in the omermost electron shells Conclusion Enemy Is neither created nor destroyed simply changes 10ml I Electrons in outer shells have more 1 potential energy 15 I Electrons can more between orbitals 3rd Electron shells I Add energy to push them up increases atom s potential energy I Electrons move back release energy as heat or light 10814 10814 ll Changes in energy i U How do the amounts of energy relate to each other A Potential at top gt potential at bottom kinetic energy I Less potential energy at the bottom of the waterfall Wh dd th B Potential at top lt I ere 1 e ener go gy Mechanical V potential at bottom 39 energy r l Movement sound heat a kmehc energy c Potential at to I Potential energy was V p 063 3 of changed to kinetic potent39339 at bottom 3 f 3 energy which was used 3 Other forms of energy kinetic energy Que ea 0 0 27 QL 94 10814 10814 17 H I Changes in energy Energy I lgt law of thermodynamics Energy can not be created or destroyed only transformed I Still the same amount Mechanical of total energy energy 3 Other forms of energy I Polnmlal Inorgy 2 Klnotlc onowy 3 0thquot loans 0 energy 10814 10814 Back to the tape Energy I Free energy energy IWhere did the potential energy go available for Work Energy was released to the surrounding I Things move to lower 23 gt env1ronment energy states IExergonic reaction net release of energy I Energy is released with 532135321 bottom omquot exergonic reaction 10814 10814 10814 Energy I Change in free energy AG Gibbs free energy Energy released to a I If AG is negative sgfenrttop frhgggsat bottom ofhill reaction is exergonic 10814 Energy I Exergonic reactions I Will this reaction be exergonic 10814 MCM 0 0x0 axe 30 v N of m o R quot quotHWY I Energy is released during this chemical reaction AG is negative Burning I Where is the potential energy Where is the kinetic energy 10814 Spontaneous reactions I Reactions Where the products have lower potential energy than the reactants I Reactions Where the product molecules are less ordered ucn o 0o arc 1 0 v N Of 1 o r v Mm u reactants products Released 10814 10814 I Entropy IChemical reactions are spontaneous if the end products are less ordered than the starting products 39 Entropy increase in disorder I2nd law of thermodynamics entropy will always increase in a closed system 10814 I Entropy 27 Tidy bedroom Messy bedroom I Entropy is always increasing I Always moving to a lower energy state more organized less organized more potential energy less potential energy less stable more stable less entropy more entropy 10814 I Entropy increasing disorder I Less entropy I More entropy 39 39 High potential energy 39 Low potential energy 39 39 More organized 39 Less organized 39 Less stable 39 More stable CH20H 108 4 I Entropy Reactants High potential energy more order lower entropy a C6H1206 6 02 Glucose a sugar This reaction occurs in your cells and when wood burns Products Low potential energy less order higher entropy 10814 10814 Entropy PROCESS OSMOSIS I Does this have high or low entropy I What happens as entropy increase Less order more disorder Equal concentrations 1 Unequal concentrations OI both s1des across membrane 10814 Entropy I Not all the potential energy in the reactants ends up in the products I Energy is lost to entropy generally as heat ucu o oo oquotco v N OI7H o M39m reactants products 10814 Entropy I Energy is not converted 100 efficiently I This is inevitable quot I c I quot 00 0quotc o v w olv u o reactants products 10814 Entropy IWe use glucose for fuel IIf you have less free energy in the molecules at the end where did the energy go 10814 10814 Entropy IKinetic energy Movement powering chemical reactions nerve impulses etc IPotential energy Fat energy storage I Heat 10814 Energy I Endergonic reactions I Energy is added during the reaction I Increase in free energy AG is positive Free Energy Energy input 10814 Energy 6 co2 6 H20 light gt Celeoe 6 02 Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction Requires energy 10814 Energy I Endergonic reactions Products have more energy than the reactants I More complicated molecules more potential energy Reactants are more stable than the products Free Energy Energy input Products 37 10814 10814 Energy summary The 1St law of thermodynamics states graded I 2 types of energy A Energy exists in 2 Kinetic amp potential fkgrm s potent39339 and me c I Energy is never created or destroyed only transforming J B Energy IS conserved cannot be created or I Movement of energy isn t perfectly efficient destroyed 2 o G I Entropy is always increasing c Disorder always of by increases in the if f f I Exergonic AG and endergonic reactions fquot 0a AG universe 30 6 3 10814 9 If a reaction is exergonic graded Does the creation of a lipid bilayer increase or decrease entropy graded 1 A the reaction occurs quickly B the products have less entropy than the A39 Increase reactants B Decrease c the products have f lower free energy than 6098 309 the reactants 0606 10 10814 43 Questions to think about Questions to think about awlt93qu I According to thermodynamics how should the amount of energy available to herbivores compare to the energy available to carnivores Why doesn t life violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics 10814 10814 Ch 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 10814 10814 11 10814 Metabolism IAll the chemical reactions in living things metabolism 39 39 Breaking organic molecules catabolic 39 39 Building organic molecules anabolic IWhich would you expect to be endergonic Exergonic lLots of energy moving around 10814 t ANN 0a ia What makes all this work 47 10814 ATP lStandard carrier of energy in cells IEasily releases potential energy IUsed in coupled reactions 10814 ATP hydrolysis b Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed M M M ATP Water z lww um i Q ADP Inorganic Energy phosphate 10814 12 10814 ATP hydrolysis Energy transformation 2 23 I 1 mole 603 X 10 mOIGCUles lThe change in free energy AG ll kcal energy to increase 1 kg of H20 1 0C lFor the reaction ATP gt ADP Pi the change in free energy A G is 73 kcal lLess energy in ADP than ATP mole more emmpy lWhen A G is negative energy is being negative Change in free energy released exergonic reaction AG Coupled reactions Coupled reactions lWhat happens to the re1eased energy lBreaking down ATP releases energy couple it Kinetic energy with reactions that need energy Heat lglucose phosphate gt glucosephosphate lAre there any endergonic reactions that AC 33 kcalmole need running endergonic reaction 13 10814 ATP lglucose phosphate gt glucosephosphate A G 33 kcalmole IATP gt ADP phosphate A G 73 kcalmole IEnergy lost from ATP can be used to power other reactions that need energy 10814 H 3 Moving energy Nonphosphorylated form Phosphorylated form 3 n 3 7 lt phosphorylation cause pink loop to move c m qun an u 10814 H 3 Moving energy form form I The lost phosphate group can be attached to enzymes changing their shapes 39 I Can also be attached phosphorylatlon a sequot39quotquot39 quot 39quot directly to reactants 10814 57 H 3 Moving energy A 5939 ATP 0 gt 2 0 c o g D o I A B Reactants C 39 39 39n u IM I 10814 14 10814 Moving energy Actwatcdquot El r9 nubAmie quot 1 2 8 o 1 V g om h 04 u Ii o I 2 a wquot Enmay v mqu h yn ihn39uI Reactants Progress of reaction I quothb ul Ihtl 1 H I Moving energy Free energy Reactants luM39atr Inn Enmav mquum In hylllhn39 ul An Progress of reaction Products 10814 10814 C CH L1 L1 Redox reactions Redox reactions lReduction oxidation reactions quotquot quot y chemical reactions involving lossgain of 1377 film electrons oco H H anquot mm Hc 0H 00 energy Increases IOXIdatIOIl loss of electron ac W Mo mm 602 water enemy mum WON lReduction gain of electron IOIL RIG more energy because electrons are shared 10814 10814 15 10814 Redox reactions lElectrons usually move as part of H atoms lReductions often create CH bonds high energy leidations often create CO bonds low energy 10814 16