Biology 1114 Notes Week 3
Biology 1114 Notes Week 3 BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sean Bhatnagar on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Biology 1114 Week 3 The molecular basis of Mendelian genetics Simple dominance When 2 alleles are present in an individual one factor is dominant and its trait is preferentially expressed Reginald C Punnett 18751967 Considered father of genetics Combined Mendel39s laws with statistics Experimented with peas Created Punnett square William Bateson 18611926 0 Translated mendels work into English Coined terms such as genetics aeomorphs alleles heterozygote and homozygoe Established the Cambridge School of Genetics Collaborated with Punnet on genetic experiments Know how to do monohybrid and dihybrid cross Generating genetic variation Mutation the ultimate source of all heritable variation 0 Point mutation after single nucleotide Know Transversion vs Translation Sources of genetic variation Mutation is the ultimate source of all heritable variation 0 Unequal crossingover alters larger sections of DNA Recombination shuf es existing variation into new combinations 0 Create new combinations that lead to greater levels of phenotypic variation Random or Directional Mutation and recombination are random 0 Changes are usually nonadaptive or even maladaptive although sometimes they can be harmful o Mutation and recombination can be nonrandom at the molecular and chromosomal level Ex certain nucleotides substitutions are more than likely than others 0 Mutations act on existing genes modifying or generating new alleles 0 Their impact can be large or small May cause early death or go unnoticed silent mutations CoDominance both alleles are expressed and the heterozygote expresses a third phenotype They are both present Incomplete Dominance the alleles are blended together Like the pink ower Pleiotrophy single gene impacts two or more traits Epistasis one gene interferes with the expression of another gene What is the difference Pleiotrophy is one gene with multiple phenotypic effects where as epistasis is two genes contribute to one phenotype Polygenic Traits Several genes may make products that contribute to phenotype Phenotype is determined by interaction of multiple genes Ex Eye color 4 genes determine eye color Nongenetic factors can complicate gene expression Genotype is expressed in the context of its bearer Environmental Effects Temperature within nest determines sex Maternal Effects Special case of environmental Environmenta features that can be attributed to mother environmental of wombegg Amount of yolk in egg Post birth maternal care Variation due only to environmental effects is not a factor in evolution There are experiments to know if a phenotype is environmentally or genetically determine Controlled crosses common garden experiments and cross fostering Controlled crosses Determine whether phenotype is inherited according to Mendelian laws Common garden experiments Raised offspring under identical conditions Run several gardens to test effect of particular variables Cross fostering Common gardens for animals Have offspring reared by parents other than their own Break up litters at birth randomely redistribute young among family groups Phenotype Genotype Environment Review and Know Darwin39s Postulates of Natural Selection Variation Inheritance Differential Survival ExUncUon OOOO
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