International Studies Week 3
International Studies Week 3 INTSTDS 3350
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sean Bhatnagar on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTSTDS 3350 at Ohio State University taught by Philipp Rehm in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
International Studies Week 3 Next time period Early Modern Period 15001800 Major Developments Social change A rising population that put pressure on resources up to mid 17thC Religion The fragmentation of Christendom and a long Reformation Politics Culture Economy Early modernity as a period of Transitions From religious uniformity to secularism and freedom of worship From decentralized kingdom to centralized nation state and empire From restricted elite dominated politics to notions of natural rights equality and popular politics From dark ages to scienti c rational age From feudalism to capitalism Hang crafts to mechanized industrial revolution Religious Tumults Protestant Reformation Thirty Year s War 16181648 Protestant Reformation Martin Luther not the rst challenger of the Catholic Church Ex John Wycliffe 13131384 Wycliffe challenged and on May 4th 145 the council declared him heretic He banned his writings and decreed his works should be burned Jan Huss was burned at the Stake and defrocked him Causes of the Reformation Renaissance many new ideas People saw the Catholic Church as corrupt and began questioning the sale of indulgences New technology Martin Luther wrote 95 Theses Religious Revolutionaries from all class 0 Common people poor laboring o Dissatisfaction with grand apparatus of the church Baptists Mennonites etc 0 Middle Class 0 Wants to run their own religious affairs Calvinists Kings and Ruling Princes o Secular vs religious power Lutheran Anglican Churches Religious Revolutionaries would Chalenge the Roman Church Often want to reform not abandon the church Reigious frontier set in 1555 Peace of Augsburg but takes till 1648 Peace of Westphalia to become accepted Martin Luther 14831546 0 Once a German monk then professor o Opposes selling of indulgences 0 Pope has no authority over purgatory 0 Bible not Pope is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge from God 0 Translation of Bible 0 Antagonistic views toward Jews The 1517 The Ninety Five Theses Martin Luther posts 95 speci c criticisms of the Catholic Church on door of Wittenberg Church 0 Copies spread quickly printing press 0 Pope Leo X tried to convince Luther to withdraw criticism 0 Luther refused Pope banned his works and excommunicated him 1521 0 Religious And social revolutions get mixed 152425 Peasant Revolt Schmalkaldic League 1531 Lutheran Princes set up a defensive alliance within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid16th century Charles V is the Holy Roman Emperor The Peace of Augsburg 1555 Protestantism had been recognized Protestant victory forced Charles to sign Peace of Passau Augsburg granted Lutheranism of cial status within the holy Roman Empire and let princes choose the of cial religion within the domains they control quotCuius regio eius religioquot whose the religion is it shall have is religionquot This was the formula for the Peace of Augsburg Flavors of Protestantism New movement within Germany diversi ed almost immediately independent of Luther Reformation in England 0 Henry VIII sought divorce from 1St wife Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn 0 Wanted male heir Only Child Mary Mary eventually becomes Queen restores Catholicism 0 Anne Boleyn daughter Elizabeth 1 Catherine39s nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with political ties to Pope 0 Pope refused Henry s request for divorce 0 Henry broke ties with Church Catholic Reformation A Response to rise of Protestantism Efforts to reassert church power 0 Church pushed for censorship of books that ran counter to Church teaching 0 154563 Council of Trent Italy Thirty Year s War 16181648 0 Religious wars in Europe with Peace of Westphalia 1555 Peace of Augsburg o quotCuius regio eius religioquot Initially a war between Protestant and Catholic in Holy Roman Empire Developed into a more general con ict involving most of the great powers of Europe becoming less about Religion Peace of Westphalia 1648 Peace of Augsburg was renewed with addition of Calvinism to formula Beginning of sovereign states Territory is xed element of political identi cation and states de ned exclusive nonoverlapping territories Absolutist monarchies 0 Power shift from Spain to France I Louis XIV 16431715 After Peace of Westphalia The West South thrived o Empires Spain Portugal England France Netherlands 0 3 New Powers Austrian Empire Hohenzollerns of Prussia Russian Empire Romanovs The Centre East not so much 0 3 Aging Empires Holy Roman Empire 1806 republic of Poland1795 and Ottoman Empire 1923 Central Power Weakens No ef cient system of gov and admin People consist of many nationalities languages and religion The Holy Roman after 1648 o No central government no trade France in the 17005 Richest most powerful nation in Europe Strong army and navy Philosophers led the Enlightenment In uential in fashions art and clothes But was suffering a growing economic crises made dif cult by the traditional politicalsocial system Focused on MiniPaper The question quotCompare and contrast the developments of England withvs France discussed by Palmer Textbook 420 and 421quot
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