World Hist II Week 8 Notes
World Hist II Week 8 Notes Hist 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
World Hist II Buckel Professor McNay Week 8 British Expansion in China Empire The Chinese had a lot of goods that the British wanted o Ex) porcelain, tea, silk Opium was popular in the East- it was the only product they could trade in China o The market, as more people used opium, increased as people became addicted, making the British money China didn’t like the opium trade as drug use increased crime, poverty, etc. Commissioner Lin o Canton- only trade port between British and Chinese- very well guarded and secured o He burns the warehouses full of opium, upsetting the British because they were “destroying private property” Opium Wars First: 1839-1842 o Naval battle- the Chinese were defeated because they hadn’t used their navy in battles for a long time, and the British had a very strong navy Treaty of Nanjing (1842)- many trading ports had to open, the opium trade was still open, and gave the British the right to roam and trade in China o Extraterritoriality- if any British subject commit a crime in China, they can’t be tried by China or a Chinese court- they had to be arrested by British, jailed by British, and tried by British o This inspired other nations to do the same with their international travels Second: 1856-1860 o Was ultimately the Chinese rebelling against Treaty of Nanjing o They lost support of the people because they almost lost control of China American Empire The settlers of the Americas took the land from the natives, creating an empire o The Caribbean and the West were targets for expansion and empires The Mexican War o Americans originally wanted to define border between the US and Mexico- the US wanted a west coast o There are very few Mexicans (Spanish immigrants) in the area at the time, as it was hard for Spaniards to get people to move to the New World The very few people there couldn’t defend their territory o President Polk wanted to buy the land from Mexico- they refuse Slavery was illegal in Mexico Mexicans wanted Texans to convert to Catholicism (Texas was protestant) Texans rebel and start fighting o Texas was to be a free state in the Union, but for about 20 years they refused as they wanted to keep their slaves o The US sends an army to camp out in disputed territory between Texas and Mexico Mexicans attack the army, starting the war o Americans attack from several angles, taking California and driving down to Central Mexico, and then to the coast, repeating the march Cortez did when he landed in the New World They occupy Mexico City and the Mexicans finally agree to a peace treaty o Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)- US gains Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California (1 year later, Gold Rush starts in California) Suddenly, the US has many useful and powerful ports in the world for trade Eyes Across the Pacific The US wants to be a part of more trade markets President Filmore o Is convinced to send a fleet to Japan to force the Japanese to open up their country and trade with the US Commodore Perry- in charge of the fleet of Black Ships- ships with sails and wheels (like riverboats) o Black ships only really made an appearance in history in this context They arrive in the summer of 1853 in what is now known as Tokyo Harbor, being the first foreign fleet to appear there in 200 years o Japan hadn’t changed technologically or socially at all, meaning they didn’t have firepower (besides bows and arrows), and other modern marvels Japanese sail to the American ships- the only foreign people outside Japan that knew how to speak the language were the Dutch- of which the Americans had a translator Japanese agreed to take the letter from the President to the emperor, and the Americans said they’d come back the next summer with an ambassador Townsend Harris- delivered to the fleet in Hong Kong and when Americans came back in 1854, he was prepared to negotiate treaty with Japan o Harris and Dutch translator are dropped off at abandoned Buddhist temple o Translator gets sick, but thankfully recovers o They buy horses and ride into Tokyo, and the Japanese finally talk to them Treaty of Kanagawa (1856)- beginning of the long relationship between the US and Japan Meiji emperor- replacement emperor of Japan who was open to materials and trade with other cultures, but adamant about keeping their country their own o Ex) modern day: cars, phones, computers all have their own versions in Japan Japan comes to the US for public education and adopts the education system, Britain for steel, etc. Japan goes from being helpless in the 1850s to defeating China and eventually Russia in the 1900s because the Americans opened their country back up Treaty of Portsmouth- peace treaty between Japan and Russia in New Hampshire, moderated by Teddy Roosevelt, winning Roosevelt the Nobel Peace Prize Discoveries and War in South Africa From the 1820s and onward, there are many immigrants of English populations moving to South Africa Johannesburg, South Africa was a small place for a long time, but when diamonds (1866) (and later gold (1886)) was discovered there, it sparks an economic and population boom o The irony is that people originally moved there to get away from other people, and now everyone was moving there for bustling wealth It was decided that only native-born Afrikaners can vote, upsetting people who were moving there and investing there. It was to prevent newcomers from taking over Cecil Rhodes- ruthless, calculating individual who was invested in the South African republics, but wasn’t able to vote or have any influence The British gov’t becomes concerned about the happenings in South Africa o They wanted to make money in the gold and diamonds, but were locked out Britain declares war on the republics (but didn’t really have a military in S. Africa)- Boer War (199-1902) o The natives didn’t have a military, either, but know the land and are naturally decent soldiers o It took a while for British troops to get over there, and Britain underestimated how many troops they needed o As more British troops arrive, there are nearly half a million British soldiers in S. Africa, finally outnumbering the Boers in the fight o The Boers were defeated in every measurable way, but even when their capital falls, they don’t stop fighting They would fight during the day and go home at night o The British start burning farms and towns and putting people in concentration camps to stop the fighting Women, children, and the elderly are dying in these camps, but the British aren’t paying any attention to this The only way it got publicity was by British people who travelled to S. Africa and exposed the truth of what was happening o Finally, Paul Krueger (leader of Boers) surrenders, and the Boers finally give up Called the “bitter enders”, because they fought to the bitter end The significance of this war is that Britain, then considered the most powerful country in the world, had such a hard time fighting a bunch of farmers Union of South Africa The one thing the British didn’t want to do is fight the Boers again o The Afrikaners were very angry still, and the British just wanted to get on with making money Union of South Africa (1910)- unifies the republics and gets rid of the Boer “nationality” The native Africans (the black population) did fight in the Boer war o They tended to side with the British, the “less hostile” force than the Afrikaners o There were some connections to the Afrikaners and sometimes sided with them The natives were better off in Cape Colony than in the Union of S. Africa The first thing the Union of S. Africa did was deny the native blacks voting rights ANC (1912) Land Act (1913)- Afrikaners split up land, and 90% of the land was given to whites The relationship between the Afrikaners and the English settles, as the Brits let up on more and more political power o The British accommodated their situation, but the Afrikaners resented their presence o Creation of the Nationalist Party (1912), which was not a major party until 1948 Nationalist party wins power in 1948 o Establish the Structure of Apartheid Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949)- took away the right to interracial marriage Immorality Act (1950)- prevented sexual relations between races Group Areas Act (1950)- designated certain areas to isolate populations of the native blacks (Zulu, etc.) Bantu Education Act (1953)- separate schools, don’t educate them to be lawyers or doctors, but rather educate them enough for simple work It was an attempt to make the black population subservient to the white population The African National Congress resists o Defiance Campaign (1952) o Sharpesville (1959) 69 killed, 186 wounded American Policy Impact of the cold war- anti-communism took over and even bad people were accepted by Americans as long as they weren’t communist o Ex) Sadam Hussein Reagan vetoed a law on American Policy and investments in S. Africa- Congress overrides it P.W. Botha- president of S. Africa- ordered total security in the complete disorder of things F.W. de Klerk- lifts banning orders and releases Mandela (who had been in prison ~25 years) o Even in prison, Mandela was looked at as a leader of the movement Apartheid ends (1994) o All laws segregating blacks are eliminated and a new South Africa is created, Mandela as its first president