Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes PY 370
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steele in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
PY 370 Notes Week 3 99 Devil Increased scientific thought but still lots of religious in uence Abnormal symptoms thought due to devil s involvement Treatment of Symptoms Exorcisms ceremonies to remove demon in attempt to alleviate symptoms Madhouses Lifetime institutionalization for even mild mental illnesses Restraints commonly used emphasis more on securing not curing locked up without treatment therapy ice baths goal shock system back to normalcy gyrating chair spun until patient nearly unconscious goal more blood ow to brain Views on Human Behavior 1 humanism 2 rationalism 3 empiricism Humanism 1 Made possible by decline of church Continuation of Black Death despite prayer undermined faith Focus on current life Not just about going to heaven Greater emphasis on free will If something increases one s happiness it s now encouraged God s approval deemphasized Individual man deemed valued as more important than the Church NEW CONCEPT Rationalism 2 v Empiricism 3 2 opposing belief systems Rationalism ideas are innate Empiricsm knowledge ideas are learned through experience Rationalism Innate knowledge makes up basis of human understanding Ren Descartes prominent figure Developed Cartesian plain Determines location w coordinant system Developed to locate precisely the position of a y on his ceiling Lots of work with pineal gland in brain Size of grain of rice Thought to be window to soul bc centrally located in brain Current understanding of functions sleep and reproduction Notion that brain structure shapes human nature Not all about God Innate knowledge Ex Horse born knowing how to walk Corollaries in humans in our genes Senses are USELESS in learning how to interact with our surroundings Nature gt nurture LAD Language Acquisition Device Developed by Chompsky living psychologist who studies linguistics Notion that we re already born with ability to understand language Modernday rationalist Ex of 18th century ideas being carried into present day Empiricism 3 Rejects innate ideas Knowledge fears etc LEARNED Not genetic Senses key to this learning John Locke founder of empiricism Tabula rasa Latin for blank slatequot Born with no knowledge All learned through experience environment Nature lt nurture Immanuel Kant Blends rationalism and empiricism Not just senses innate tools Ex awareness of concepts like time and space Ex Pokemon Some learning experiential and hierarchical Ex wait til late in high school to teach Calc bc essential to accumulate knowledge along the way leanlacuqes Rousseau Developed stages of cognition We learn best from progression of simple to complex In uenced Piaget s stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operations Readiness Appropriate levels met at each age range Must master one to move on to next level Lots of new ideas during this time period All PHILOSOPY not psychology psychology not akin to physics or biology not the same caliber of science inferior still moving psychology Pseudoscience 1 phrenology 2 physiognomy 3 mesmerism Phrenology 1 Phrenology theory that skull shape indicates behavioral traits or inner nature Bumps and indentations Bumps indicate lots of activity in a particular region Indendations indicate personality ability Franz Gall founder German Beginning observation that his friends with bulging eyes were intelligent Theory lots of frontal cortex activity pushed brain matter outward to cause eye bulging phrenology map different parts of brain responsible for different types of cognition pseudoscience but gave rise to IMPORTANT CONCEPT ex region above ear responsible for impulsivity destructiveness bump above ear indicative of destructive personality psychograph machine that produces skull measurements lucrative practice phrenologists identified weaknesses gave guidance on how to improve IMPORTANT CONCEPT possible to CHANGE behavior Nature v nurture debate continues Experience important Fowler Brothers New England brothers who made MAIOR PROFIT off phrenology Making off American dream desire to live best life possible Fowler System very popular and lucrative many commercial items Ex desktop phrenology head subscriptionbased phrenology journal Ex matchmaking service based off skull measurements First modern attempt to infer characteristics from external observation People accepted initially then eventually caught on Fowler brothers money hogsquot Phrenology fraudulent but not entirely wrong Observation not phrenology gave clues about personality lifestyle Callouse Odors Body language Localization of different aspects of cognition in brain Ex language functioning in Broca s Area Paul Broca discovered Worked with patient only capable of saying quottanquot Autopsy part of brain that processes language damaged Physiognomy 2 Johann Lavater codeveloper Physiognomy Facial features reveal aspects of character and intellect Origin of stuck upquot upturned nose sign of in ated sense of selfworth Promoted racial stereotypes Iewish nose shrewdness African nose weak undeveloped Never reached same popularity height as phrenology Name gone ideas remain People with more attractive features perceived as nicer Mesmerism 3 Founder Franz Mesmer Mesmerism belief in the presence of a magnetic uid in the body Disruption of ow 9 illness mental or physical Mesmer used magnetic wand on patients Supposed success curing women of stomach cramps pain Eventually belief that Mesmer s hands had become magnified Blood stopped owing from man s ear as Mesmer approached him Touted healing powers of his hands Mesmer the greatquot Mesmer exiled after investigation by King Louis XVI s commission uncovered fraud Pseudoscience persists today Astrology hypnosis psychics acupuncture polygraphs All considered pseudoscience in some scientific circles Takeaways from the 18005 Initial attempt to understand ourselves Formed basis of development of psychology field Separation from philosophy Solidified interest Pseudoscientific foundation creates lasting stigma Psychologists still face skepticism lack of credibility Psych not always regarded as quotrealquot science Popular opinion and intellectual communities
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