Week 1 Notes + Textbook Readings
Week 1 Notes + Textbook Readings BIO 0013
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoe Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 0013 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Koegel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Cells & Organisms in Biology at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Bio 13 Textbook reading 11 Organism life form needs energy to sustain life everything is made up of cells process info hereditarygenes replicate evolve 12 Theory an explanation for a phenomena that is supported by evidence framework for development of new hypotheses Cell Theory Robert Hooke saw small compartments in cork under microscope called them quotcellsquot quotAll organisms are made up of cells amp all cells come from preexisting cellsquot changed the belief of spontaneous generation Advances in microscopes opportunities to explore cell complexity amp gain knowledge Bacteria smallest organisms Cell organized into compartments amp bound by plasma membrane chemical reactions occur in cells 15 Null hypothesis what should occur when the original hypothesis is incorrect Good hypotheses predictions that can be supportedrejected by data Experimental design should consist of control groups constant conditions repeated trials Hypotheses explanations used to make testable predictions Evidence Based Decision Making used by biologists to ask questions pose hypotheses to answer those questions amp use evidence to see is hypothesis is correct 21 Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen amp Oxygen make up 96 if matter quotStructure affects functionquot Electrons orbit nucleus in orbitals Orbitals can hold up to 2 electrons orbitals are grouped into levels electron shells valence electrons occupy outer shell Nucleus is made of protons and neutrons Protons charge Electrons charge Atom is electrically NEUTRAL when of protons of electrons Atomic Number of protonsllMass Number of Protons of Neutrons The of Protons does not vary l It will change the atomic which will changethe element The of Neutrons CAN CHANGE l creates isotopes different masses but same element Atomic weight average of all Mass s of lsotopes based on their abundance Most lsotopes are stable Chemical Bonds attractions that bind atoms Covalent Bonds strong attractions where 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons molecules are held by covalent bonds Electronegativity accounts for differences in electron sharing Some elements have stronger electronegativity and hold on to electrons ore tightly resulting in unequal sharing Oxygen MOST ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENT Range of electronegativity O gt N gt C amp C is almost equal to H NonPolar Covalent Bond symmetric equal sharing Polar Covalent Bond asymmetric unequal sharing due to differences in electronegativity Positive Charge lose electrons Negative Charge gain electrons 34 Proteins perform cell functions catalyze reactions enzymes defend antibodies carry receive signals determine structure amp transport molecules Enzymes speed up reactions quotlock amp key modelquot substrates t into enzymes at the active site Class Notes 9815 Proteins key to the cell Lipids barriers amp give cell structure Carbohydrates provides energy fuel source Nucleotides stores info Cystic Fibrosis CF caused by singe gene mutation CTFR Chlorine ion channel transports Cl ions Cl interacts with insideoutside of cell How mutations cause CF What to know type of mutation genetics recessive vs dominant protein structure know the wild type how CTFR channel affects transport other effects of mutation cells 70 water 30 other 15 protein quotStructure determines functionquot Proteins are made up of amino acids 20 different types affects properties amp shape structure H N O C most abundant elements Textbook Reading 22 Water most abundant molecule it s a solvent dissolves in water because water is polar like dissolves like polar molecules will dissolve in water Hydrophilic water loving polar or charged hydrogen bonds make it possible to dissolve in water Hydrophobic water fearing nonpolar or uncharged compounds do not dissolve in water Structure small polar covalent bonds bent shape Cohesion when molecules are attracted to each other made possible by Hydrogen bonds Adhesion when unlike molecules attract liquid amp solid surface both cohesionadhesion explain how water moves from tree roots forms a meniscus Surface Tension water creates stronger forces between neighboring molecules strong elastic membrane Water is more dense as a liquid than a solid due to Hydrogen bonding constantly being brokenformed Molecules are packed tighter in a liquid form Water high capacity for absorbing heat energy Speci c heat is the energy necessary to raise 1gram by degree C Hydrogen bonds must break for heat to transfer Heat of vaporization energy to change 1gram from liquid to gas must absorb a lot 0 f water to evaporate Chemical Reaction one substance is combined broken down into another substance between water molecules dissociation Acids substances that give up protons water a weak acid Bases substances that gain protons Acid base reaction transfer of protons m 16 Acidic 7 l Neutral 814 Basic Buffers minimize pH changes mostly weak acids 25 Organic compounds contain Carbon Carbon most versatile atom due to 4 valence electrons l will form 4 covalent bonds H O N P S l functional groups Functional Groups Amino functions as a base attracts protons Carboxyl functions as an acid loses protons in solution Amino Acid amino group carboxyl group linked by covalent bonds Carbonyl aldehyde amp ketone molecules site of reactions that link molecules into larger complex organic compounds Hydroxyl acts as weak acid polar molecules containing hydroxyl groups form Hydrogen bonds amp are hydrophilic Phosphate 2 negative charges when transferred from one organic compound to another l charge affects structure of recipient when phosphates bond together chemical energy is stored for chemical reactions Sulfhydryl sulfur atom binds to hydrogen link together by disulfide bonds 5 5 31 Amino acids build proteins Structure core carbon atom bonded to four different atoms 1 Hydrogen atoms 2 NH2 amino functional group 3 COOH carboxyl group 4 quotRgroupquot variable side chain All quotRgroupsquot are unique amp affect amino acids polarity amp solubility Amino acids are monomers when linked by peptide bonds create polymers polymerization Monomers polymerize via condensation dehydration reactions CondensationDehydration Reactions Water is removed to link amino acids peptide bond is formed Hydrolysis Water is added to break peptide bond and separate amino acids increases entropy 32 Protein Structure Primary sequence of amino acids R groups will affect proteins solubility amp reactivity Secondary shape of protein stabilized by Hbonds Shapes are alpha helix and beta pleated sheet Tertiary due to reactions between Rgroups Five types of reactions 1 Hbonding 2 Hydrophobic in water the nonpolar Rgroups make polar water form stronger Hbonds amp increase the stability of their reactions 3 Van der Waals electrical attractions weak when nonpolar chains are close 4 Covalent Bonding disul de bonds bridges strong 5 lonic Bonds between full amp opposite charges Quaternary combination of polypeptides
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