Zoo Lab 106
Zoo Lab 106 Bio 106-016
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 8 Flatworms Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes lack circulatory system for transporting oxygen and nutrients cells are close to surface for effective diffusion and transportation of nutrients monoecious (have both female and male reproductive organs can self fertilize) mostly parasitic possess gastrovascular cavity Triploblastic: 3 tissue layers: Epidermis, Mesoderm, Gastrodermis Excretory system consisting of flame cells Metabolic waste is eliminated through diffusion through the body wall Bilateral symmetry Ladderlike nervous system 2 longitudinal nerve cords connected by a series of transverse nerves Cephalization concentration of nervous tissue and sensory structures at the anterior end of the body Acoelomate body plan NO coelom ( cavity within the mesoderm ) Mesoderm is solid inside flatworms filled w/ muscle fibers and other loose tissues Body Planes of Triploblastic Animals Acoelomate animals whose central space is filled with tissue (mesoderm). No true body cavity exists. (i.e. flatworms) Pseudocoelomate animals with a central body cavity that lies b/n the gastrodermis and mesoderm (i.e. roundworms (nematodes) Eucoelomate animals with a central body cavity that lies within the mesoderm (i.e. earthworms, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates) Turbellarian Anatomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Turbellaria Genus: Dugesia (planarian) freeliving flatworms with a ventral oral opening Carnivorous eat crustaceans, protists, roundworms and insects Mucus secretion from specialized glands allow them to entangle small prey Typically inhabit freshwater streams and ponds. oceans and moist terrestrial environments (under rocks, moist debris, foliage) At anterior end (cranial; head region) (sensory structures) o Eyespot photoreceptor; provides chemical info to the cell about light intensity in an environment; cannot form true images; detect shadows and distinguish between light and dark o Auricles chemoreceptors that detect dissolves chemicals in water BOTH provide info about external environment to cerebral ganglia and ladderlike nervous system In middle o Pharynx muscular extension of the gastrovascular cavity that extends from the sheath in the body for feeding; extends through ventral oral opening and sucks its food o Branched gastrovascular cavity to minimize the distance for nutrients to diffuse from the gastrovascular cavity to tissues o Extracellular digestion (in gastrovascular cavity) nutrients are absorbed directly by individual cells; undigested food is eliminated through pharynx Possess simple excretory system w/ flame cells; evolutionary larger body sizes Flame cells osmoregulation and assists with excretion; located at terminal ends of branching tubules tubules collect metabolic waste from tissues through diffusion while flame cells create a current that pushes wastes along tubules system and out animal’s tiny pores Flukes Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Genus: Fasciola; Clonorchis liver flukes endoparasites with leafshaped body and anterior oral opening usually attached to intestines, lungs, blood vessels, bladder or liver feed by robbing nutrients and body fluids from host Complex life cycles (several intermediate host; one definitive host) Flukes use suckers to attach to host’s inner body walls or organs Surrounded by a cuticle thin protective layer/barrier that prevents digestive enzymes of host from dissolving them Prolific production of eggs b/c only a tiny % of eggs make it out of the host, hatch into larvae & find another host/reproduce Monoecious Solitary lifestyle Fasciola hepatica sheep liver fluke digenea Adult liver flukes live in the liver and bile ducts of their hosts where they feed on blood and produce prolifically o eggs enter intestinal tract w/ bile and are expelled with the animal’s feces. If eggs are dropped onto a wet area, the eggs hatch, releasing freeliving miracidia larvae, where they swim until they they find an intermediate snail host o miracidium larvae can produce thousands of cercaria larvae See Figure 8.9 Clonorchis sinensis human liver fluke; common in Eastern Asia 3 parasitic stages in life: primary host (human from eating raw/undercooked fish infected with metacercaria), 2 intermediate hosts (snail and fish) See Figure 8.10 Structure Function Oral Sucker Specialized for attachment to host; used in feeding Ventral sucker secondary point of attachment to host Pharynx muscular tube for pumping in blood and body fluids from host Gastrovascular cavity forked tube for digestion and distribution of nutrients throughout the body (reduced in flukes) Testes produce sperm Vas deferens stores sperms and transports sperm to genital pore Genital pore receives sperm and moves it to the seminal receptacle Ovary produces eggs Seminal receptacle receives sperm and stores it (often for the life of the flukes) eventually moving it to the uterus where eggs are fertilized Yolk gland and yolk eggs are combined with yolk and shelled before passing to the duct uterus Uterus shelled, fertilized eggs are stored here until release through the genital pore Excretory canals and collect metabolic waste from the flame cells bladder Excretory pore releases metabolic waste products out of the body Tapeworms Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Cestoda Genus: Taenia pisiformis (dog tapeworm) ; Dipylidium caninum (double pore tapeworm; 2 genital pores on each proglottid) endoparasites with long, ribbonlike body composed of proglottids and no oral openings No gastrovascular cavity; nutrients absorbed directly through epidermis Possess cuticle Scolex (head) modified for attachment to the host and possess an array of hooks and suckers that are embedded in the anterior end inside intestinal wall Body = series of growing sections (proglottids) from scolex Selffertilization (possible) and cross fertilization b/n 2 tapeworms (more common) o 1 proglottid can fertilize another on the same tapeworm o Proglottids @ terminal end w/ fertilized eggs drop off and pass through the host through its feces Structure Function Scolex anterior end of tapeworm; lacks sensory structures but possesses modifications for attachment to intestinal wall of host Hooks and modified structures on scolex for attachment to host suckers Neck constricted portion signifying posterior end of scolex; marks the site of origin of immature proglottids Immature newly produced section of the tapeworm that has undeveloped proglottid reproductive organs Excretory canals longitudinal channels running along the outer margins of the body that deliver metabolic waste products out of the tapeworm Mature tapeworm segment that has functional reproductive organs proglottids Yolk gland and eggs are combined with yolk and shelled before passing to the uterus yolk duct Ovary produces eggs Uterus shelled, fertilized eggs are stored here until proglottid drops off of tapeworm body Vagina point of entry into female reproductive tract through which sperm travel to reach the eggs; joins with the genital pore Testes produce sperm Vas deferens canal through which sperm pass as they exit the proglottid through the genital pore Genital pore external opening common to the male and female reproductive tracts of the tapeworm; sperm exit and enter proglottids through this opening Gravid proglottid tapeworm segment containing ripe fertilized eggs; this segment is ready to drop off the tapeworm body and be eliminated from the host in feces Chapter 9 Roundworms Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda mixture of freeliving and parasitic roundworms Unsegmented bilaterally symmetrical Covered by cuticle (secreted by epidermis protective coating in parasite forms) o only permeable to water, gases Diecious (females are larger than the males) Pseudocoelom lies b/n mesoderm (muscles tissue) and gastrodermis (intestine) Complete digestive tract increased digestive efficiency Excretory system No circulatory or respiratory system fluid of pseudocoelom perform gas and nutrient transport Onchcerca nematode; migrates in victim’s eyes Dirofilara immitis heartworm; common roundworm parasite that infects dogs, cats, and other mammals and spread from host to host through mosquitos; resides in the pulmonary artery of host Enterobius vermicularis pinworm; parasite nematode that affects primarily children and causes severe abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea,and itching around anus (where female pinworm lays eggs) Trichinella sprialis parasite that lies in the intestine of pigs; form cysts in muscle tissue Dracunculus medinensis live beneath the skin of human hosts Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda Genus: Ascaris lumbricoides (infects humans and pigs) Routinely spreads in areas where sanitation practices are poor Reside in small intestine of host Males are typically smaller w/ curved posterior end and spicules near anus At anterior end, possess triradiate lips, which surround the mouth Digestive system partially digested food from host is pumped thorough mouth using pharynx and fluid is transported to intestine for nutrient absorption Excretory system 2 lateral lines running length of body to eliminate waste (have dorsal and ventral cords) Structure Function Mouth ingestion of food Pharynx muscular region of digestive tract that “pumps”that pumps food through mouth and into intestines Anus elimination of indigestible waste (egestion) Lateral Lines Longitudinal canals that function as the excretory system of roundworms, releasing nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia and urea Pseudocoelom body cavity lined on the inside by a layer of gastrodermis and on the outside by a layer of mesoderm Testis (male) produces sperm Vas deferens stores mature sperm and transports them to seminal vesicle (male) Seminal vesicle enlarged tube representing terminal portion of male reproductive tract, (male) which transports mature sperm out of the nematode Genital pore point of entry for sperm and opening through which fertilized eggs are (female) released from the body Vagina (female) terminal portion of female reproductive tract, which receives sperm from males and directs eggs through genital pore Branches uterus site where developing eggs mature before being released (female) Oviduct (female) repository for eggs produced in ovary until fertilization Ovary (female) produces eggs