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Lecture: The Impact of Media Use on Health and Risk Behaviors

by: Brianda Hickey

Lecture: The Impact of Media Use on Health and Risk Behaviors CAMHS-UA 150

Marketplace > NYU School of Medicine > Child Development > CAMHS-UA 150 > Lecture The Impact of Media Use on Health and Risk Behaviors
Brianda Hickey

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A detailed set of notes on The impact of media use on health and risk behaviors
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media
Andrea Vazzana
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CAMHS-UA 150 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Andrea Vazzana in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media in Child Development at NYU School of Medicine.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Lecture: Impact of Media Use on Health and Risk Behaviors Media Use Stats According to the January 2010 Kaiser Family Foundation study, among all 8-18 year olds the average amount of time spent with each medium in a typical day TV 4:29 Music 2:31 Computer 1:29 Video games 1:13 Print :38 Movies :25 Total Media exposure 10:45 Multitasking Proportion 29% Total Media Use 7:38 Danger in media being so accessible: No parental supervision - can be watching anything No guidance given ex. Watch a PG-13 and they curse, parents are not there to express disapproval Can watch it at any given time When there are multiple television, can access media on phones, etc…there is no sharing involved and they can have it all to themselves, in the past there was only one television in the house and they had to share it with their family Risks of Increased Media Exposure Children can gain knowledge, learn behaviors and have their value systems significantly shaped by exposure to the media observational learning by influential role models People learn how to perform new behaviors by observing others and will imitate the behaviors they have observed insofar as those behaviors are perceived to have functional value (Social Learning Theory) Impact value system, if they constantly watch something and think that is the norm, they believe it is no big deal to carry out an immoral act Normalization of risk behaviors In an effort to forge an identity and fit in, children and adolescents are compelled to do what is considered “normal” for their age group Desensitization and lack of observable consequences ex. a child watches a television show where teens go out drinking and the next morning wake up without hangover/vomiting…they only focus on the positive side of drinking and the child is lead to believe it is fun/easy think to do. No consequences to drinking are shown. Individual vulnerability to media messages Resilience versus susceptibility Researchers argue that adequate comprehension skills to deal with media messages are not dully developed until around 8th grade Family history of substance use, the acceptability of substance use within family - these children are most vulnerable to alcohol in media Adolescent Drug Use Why people use tobacco: See smoking as a form of relaxation “I just need a cigarette, I need to relax” Coping with stress Controlling weight - Models smoke as a way to control weight…appetite suppressant If you are viewing tobacco use as acceptable, then you are more likely to use tobacco Your TV Family smokes and thinks its cool, so you will also smoke National Institute on Drug Abuse (2012) 40% of American youth have tried cigarettes by 12th grade 10.3% of 12th graders are current smokers 72% of students have consumed alcohol by the end of high school 20% of 8th graders and 58% of 12th graders report having been drunk at least once Fewer teens now smoke cigarettes than smoke marijuana Other substances of abuse are declining or show no statistical change How is smoking conveyed in the media: The rebel/cool/mysterious/sophisticated people smoke Males are more likely to be viewed as having an edge Females are more likely to be viewed as having sexual affairs, engaging in illegal/reckless activities The negatives are not shown: Yellowing of teeth & wrinkling of skin Fixed by lighting/airbrushing Adverse Health Effects of Smoking 3000-4000 teenagers begin smoking everyday 1/3 will die from a tobacco related illness (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994) Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States Cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States. This is about one in five deaths Smoking causes more deaths each year than all of these combined HIV Illegal drug use Alcohol use Motor Vehicle injuries Firearm-related incidents Smoking is now seen as a Public Health Concern & outlawed in bars/restaurants Workers at establishments die from second hand smoke, having to inhale day in and day out People with cancer do not go to work…Employers do not want cancer or smoking Cigarettes: Fast Facts In 2014 Monitoring the Future Study shows a decreases in teen smoking in the three grades surveyed - 8th, 10th, and 12th grade The proportion saying that they smoked at all in the past 30 days fell significantly for the three three grades combined, from 12.8% in 2010 to 11.7% in 2011 One reason smoking has declined so sharply is that the proportion of students who ever try smoking has fallen dramatically While 49% of the 8th graders in 1996 has tried cigarettes, only 18% of the 8th graders in 2011 indicate having ever done so, a 63% decline in smoking initiation ver the past 15 years In addition to the negative health effects of smoking adolescents who smoke are 15 times more likely to use drugs than their peers who do not smoke People are mostly likely start smoking in adolescents (13 years old) rather than later in adulthood Cigarette use is degreasing, but e-cigarettes and hookah use are increasing Adverse Health Effects of Smoking Cancers: Oropharynx, Larynx, Esophagus, Trachea, Bronchus, and lung, Acute myeloid leukemia, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney and ureter, cervix, bladder, colorectal Chronic Disease: are-related macular degeneration, Congenital defects-maternal smoking: orofacial clefts, tuberculosis, Diabetes, Ectopic Pregnancy, Male sexual function-erectile dysfunction, rheumatoid arthritis, immune function There are very few problems smokers don’t have the potential in developing Cigarettes and Television In a study performed by Gutschoven and colleges, smokers were found to smoke more if they watched more TV ex. TV viewing was found to be a significant predictor of smoking volume 19% of prime time programming portrays tobacco use only 1/4 of these programs depict any negative statements or consequences about smoking Smoking on TV shows has decreased significantly, however rarely do characters refuse to smoke or express anti-smoking sentiments Hypothesized so as not to offend the corporate advertisers whose parent companies also own tobacco subsidiaries Cigarettes and Movies In a study of the tip 10 moneymaking fils from 1985 to 1995, tobacco use was found in 98%. at least one lead character used tobacco in half of the films and use was discouraged only 1/3 of the time Since 1960, the top grossing films have shown movie star smoking at 3X the rate of American adults May cause a misperception of reality Movie-smoking exposure increases positive expectancies about smoking, affiliation with peer smokers and smoking onset Smoking in movies are the greatest risk factor for teens Misperception of reality: Makes it seem it is a much more prevalent than it actually is Cigarettes & the Internet Access to tobacco on the internet for youth is much easier and less expensive than utilizing commercial sources for tobacco purchases Carton online cost of $23 as compared to purchasing a carton in a California store for $43 Cigarette Advertising The tobacco industry spends nearly $34 million a day on advertising in the U.S. alone, which is more than the yearly budget for the anti-smoking Truth campaigns Helps you relax, fit in, loose wight, look cool…Smoke! 3 consecutive Marlboro men died from smoking Effects of Cigarette Advertising The most heavily advertised brands of cigarettes (Camel, Marlboro, and Newport) were also the most popular among adolescent smokers Joe Camel = Camel Cigarettes Promoted Joe Camel on backpacks, water bottles, t-shirts…targeted at children 3 Year olds could recognize Joe Camel Create loyal customers Henriksen, 2010 Performed a longitudinal study with was as school based -survey which included 1,681 adolescents (ages 11-14) who had never smoked Assessed the frequency of visiting types of stores that contained the most cigarette advertising After 12 months, 18% of adolescents initiated smoking, but the incidence was 29% among students who visited convince, liquor, or small grocery stores at least twice per week and 9% among those who reported the lowest visit frequency (less than twice per month) Conclusion: Exposure to retail cigarette advertising is a risk factor for smoking initiation Alcohol Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug for adolescents ages 12-17 Drinking may contribute to premature sex, lower grades, and experimentation with other drugs Underage drinking is associated with increased probability of motor vehicle crashes, sexually transmitted diseases, suicide and general disability Positive values associated with drinking include romance, sociability and relaxation Positive beliefs about alcohol leads to an increased intention to drink even when other important factors like parental and peer attitudes and drinking behaviors are controlled Alcohol Advertising The effects if alcohol advertising are similar to those of cigarette advertising Use of fun loving, sexy and successful young people along with sexual imagery and celebrity endorsers Alcohol companies spend close to $2billion every year advertising int he United States alone Used to not have alcohol ads on Television Unlike cigarette advertising, alcohol ads are frequently seen and heard on TV and radio In 2000, brewers spent more than $770 million on television ads and $15 million on radio ads Since dropping its own TC ad ban in 1996, liquor -industry expenditures on broadcast commercials (primarily cable TV) have skyrocketed from $3.5 million to more than $25 million in 2000 Young people view about 1,000-2,000 alcohol ads annually On average, during prime time TV, one alcohol ad is shown every 4 hours Sports programming shows 2.4 alcohol ads per hour Additionally, advertisements are embedded through banners, scoreboards and brief interruptions for brand sponsorship Adolescents heavily exposed to alcohol advertising are more likely: To believe that drinkers possess the qualities being displayed int eh advertising To have more positive beliefs about drinking To think that getting drunk is acceptable To drink, drink heavily, and drink and drive In one survey of Maryland children ages 8-12, kids could name more brands of beer than American presidents Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and its Relationship to Underage Drinking Aims to determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink 1,786 South Dakota youth were surveyed during their sixth grade year and then followed up during their seventh grade year As compared to low-exposure youth, the probability of subsequent drinking was 27% higher among youth exposed to the most television ads The odds of drinking were nearly doubled for those who owned any promotional items after controlling for confounding variables Other statistically significant predictors included: Friends approval of drinking Low parental monitoring Impulsivity Low Religiosity Alcohol in Television Alcohol is the most frequently portrayed food or drink on Network Television On prime time TV , 70% of programs depict alcohol use More than one third of the drinking episodes are associated with humor Negative consequences are shown in only 23% of these programs Alcohol in the Movies In examination of the 200 most popular films of all time, 32% depicted alcohol intoxication There was a tendency to depict the use of alcohol in a positive light, and not to depict any consequences arising form this use Drinking alcohol is often shown as humorous, associated with increased levels of sex and sexuality, and considered a symbol of adulthood Alcohol in Music and Music Videos The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily A content analysis of music videos shown on MTV and VH1 found that alcohol is portrayed in early half In 2011, Primacy, Nuzzo, Rice & Sargent studied 793 popular songs from 2005-2007. 21.3% of the songs referred explicitly to alcohol? 63.4% associated alcohol with wealth 58.5% associated alcohol with sexual activity 51.2% associated alcohol with luxury objects supports materialism 48% associated alcohol with partying Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%) In any given song, there are multiple associated that reinforce the notion of alcohol being good Not only referencing alcohol in general, they are referencing actual brand name Drugs Illicit Drug Use in America According to data from 2011 National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health: 22.5 million Americans age 12 or older reported illicit drug use during the past month - considered as current drug use 10.1% of youths ages 12 to 17 were current illicit drug users The 2014 Monitoring the Future Study showed that of high school seniors: 44.4% reported having ever used marijuana/hashish 4.6% reported having ever used cocaine 1.0% reported having ever used heroin The 2014 study also revealed a slight decline in past year marijuana use among 8th, 10th and 12th grade adolescents, dipping form 26% to 24% for the three grades combined Among all three grades, recent trends show a decline in the perceived risk of harm associated with marijuana use Cigarette use is going down, but Marijuana use is going up Illicit Drugs in Music and Music Videos Music videos and movies are the primary venues for illicit drug exposure MTV depicts illicit drugs once every 40minutes compared to once every 100 minutes in movies and 112 minutes on prime time TV Rap songs are far more likely to contain references to illicit drugs than alternative rock and heavy metal Illicit drug users were 2.5 times more likely to report that they prefer dance music 13% of music videos in one study showed evidence of illicit substances (bongs, water pipes, rolling papers, hypodermic syringes, etc.) with 1% showing actual substance consumption Illicit Drugs in Television and the Movies Prime time television rarely mentions or shows illicit drugs and when portrayed, they are usually associated with negative consequences Addiction is rarely portrayed and when present, addicts themselves are often depicted as evil rather than ill They use drugs less than the drug use in the US population In contrast, in movies depicting illegal drugs, marijuana appeared most frequently (51%) then cocaine (33%) and other drugs (12%) No harmful effects are shown 52% of the time Drugs use is portrayed humorously However, 21% of movies include a character refusing to use drugs Positive Influence of the Media Positive Influences of the Media on Smoking The Truth Campaign: Launched in 2000, it is the largest national youth smoking prevention campaign Funded from the 1998 Master Settlement 48 states sued the tobacco companies to recoup Medicaid costs for tobacco-related illnesses Industry agreed to pay 206 billion over 25 years The only national campaign not directed by the tobacco industry Used tv, social networking sites, and an interactive website Exposes the tactics of the tobacco industry, the truth about addiction,and the health effects and social consequences of smoking Efficacy of the Truth Campaign Teens exposed tot he Truth campaign have a more accurate view of the number of their peers who smoke Good news considering teens’ perception of the prevalence of peer smoking has been shown to predict future smoking Teens with less exposure tot he campaign believed smoking was more common among people their age A 22% overall decline in youth smoking during the first two years of the campaign (2000-2002) is directly attributable to the Truth campaign This equates to 300,000 fewer youth smokers in 2002 In 2002, adolescents and youth adults reported seeing significantly more anti-smoking messages on TV (77% to 85%) than in 1996 Positive Influences of the Media on Alcohol There is strong evidence that mass media campaigns (when carefully planned, well executed, attain adequate audience exposure, and were implemented in conjunction with other ongoing prevention activities) are effective in reducing alcohol-impaied driving and alcohol-related crashes PSAs were considered more realistic and logical than ads, but responses were more critical because of perceived negativism in PSAs. Logic messages were salient in PSAs, but respondents enjoyed the entertainment appeal of ads There were high interest in, knowledge of, and credibility given to the episodes with embedded anti-alcohol messages, suggesting that young viewers are more likely to accept these messages than reject them Positive Influences of the Media on Drugs Anti-drug advertising reduces prevalence of marijuana and cocaine/crack use among adolescents, but dues not impact the volume used by existing drug users Network commercials for legal drugs outnumber Anti-drug public service announcements , 45-to-1 Summary and Ideas for the Future Today’s media outlets portray more depiction of risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption,a nd drug use and than in the past The exposure includes impressionable children and adolescents Internalization of skewed values and modeling of dangerous behavior may lead to: Adolescents using drugs at earlier ages than in the past Possibility of dependency and contraction of serious illnesses like HIV Legislation may be warranted to limit the exposure of such risk behaviors in the media Consideration of mandatory media literacy programs should be so that children are more educated to the dangers/consequences of the behaviors they see depicted in a normal, inconsequential light PSA’s have helped to lower the risk of smoking Reality television may also help to combat and lower the risk of some of these high risk behaviors


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