Chapter 8: Memory
Chapter 8: Memory Psyc 2010-003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Chapter 8 Memory: Encoding March 1, 2016 Memory Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again The study of behaviorism could explain some forms of learning But simple conditioning could not explain complex activities Cognitive psychologists view the mind as an information processor Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Encoding—storage—retrieval o Ex: keyboard—disk—monitor Sequential process Encoding The processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting the meaning Code and put into memory Stimuli must be transformed into a mental representation Stimuli represented as a memory code (or type of information) o Visual o Acoustic o Semantic Storage The retention of encoded information over time Maintain in memory After information is encoded it must be stored Information in memory can be stored in different ways, which can determine how well it will be remembered Types of long-term memory o Episodic (time based) o Procedural (information about how to do things) o Semantic (meaning of things) Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage Recover from memory To remember something, you must retrieve it Ease of retrieval depends on how the information was originally encoded, and stored Types of retrieval o Recall (recall information, like on an essay test) o Recognition (recognize information, like on multiple choice tests) Types of Memory Sensory Memory Short Term Memory (Working Memory) Long Term Memory Information Processing Model External events—Sensory memory—(Attention)—Short term memory—(encoding)—portion to long term memory, the rest leads to forgetting (encoding failure) Sensory Memory The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Major function is to hold information long enough to be processed further o Sensory registers Helps us to experience a constant flow of information, even if that flow is interrupted Selective Attention: Mental resources are focused on only part of the stimuli around us o Remaining sensory memories fade quickly Sensory memory has a very high capacity (stores a lot of information) o It can register everything you see or hear But a very short lifespan o The information in sensory memory decays in less than one second Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli o Photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli o If attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds Short Term/Working Memory Short Term Memory (STM): activated memory that stores limited amounts of information for a limited time before it is forgotten o Holds information up to about 18 seconds unless rehearsed Working memory: a newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory o Allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in short-term memory Storage in Short Term Memory Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units o Often occurs automatically o Combining larger units of information into smaller units o P H D I B M N B C N R A C I A o PHD IBM NBC NRA CIA o Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it ROY G BIV: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices History Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition Hermann Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ (Things that look like words but are not words) The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 11, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2 As rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases Long Term Memory A relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited A relatively deep processing is necessary o Semantic (meaning) encoding o NOT rehearsal Unlimited capacity and unlimited time Types of Long Term Memory 1. Explicit (declarative): With conscious recall Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” Processed in hippocampus Facts: general knowledge Personally experienced events Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information such as word-meanings 2. Implicit (procedural): Without conscious recall Retention independent of conscious recollection Processed, in part, by cerebellum (smooth motor movement) Skills: motor and cognitive Classical and operant conditioning events Encoding: to Long Term Memory Some information (ex: route to your school) is automatically processed However, new or unusual information (ex: friend’s new cell phone number) requires attention and effort Automatic Processing: we process an enormous amount of information effortlessly (automatically, without attention) o Space/location: while reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page o Time: we unintentionally note the order of events that take place in a day o Frequency: you effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you Effortful Processing: committing new information to memory requires effort, and such processing leads to durable and accessible memories o Encoding can occur at a deep or shallow level Semantic (meaning) Acoustic (sound) Visual (appearance) o The more time/effort put into encoding, the better it’s remembered QUIZ 1. If the onset of alight reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a _________ reinforcer. a. Partial b. Primary c. Conditioned d. Delayed 2. Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _________ schedule of reinforcement. a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 3. An organisms ability to mentally anticipate that an US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) _______ perspective. a. Evolutionary b. Behaviorist c. Cognitive d. Neuroscience 4. The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by a. Pavlov’s studies of conditioned salivation b. Garcia and Koelling’s research on taste aversion c. Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement d. Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning 5. A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates a. Generalization b. Latent learning c. Partial reinforcement d. Higher-order conditioning 6. For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _______ schedule. a. Fixed-interval b. Variable-interval c. Fixed-ratio d. Variable-ratio 7. Some teachers have reduced the disruptive classroom behavior of students by imposing a time-out following disruptive behavior. In this case, the time-out is a a. Conditioned response b. Negative reinforcer c. Primary reinforcer d. Punishment 8. One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that a. In CC the responses operate on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli b. In OC the responses are triggered by preceding stimuli c. In CC the responses are automatically triggered by stimuli d. In OC the responses are reflexive 9. The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a _______ schedule. a. Fixed-ratio b. Variable-ratio c. Fixed-interval d. Variable-interval 10. Which of the following is an example of reinforcement? a. Presenting a positive stimulus after a response b. Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response c. Being told that you have done a good job d. All of the above ANSWERS 1) C 2) C 3) C 4) C 5) C 6) D 7) D 8) C 9) B 10) D March 3, 2016 Memory: Storage and Retrieval in LTM Feature Sensory Working Long Term Memory Memory Memory Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7 chunks Very large (give/take 2) Duration 0.25 seconds 20 seconds years Memory Encoding 1. Spacing Effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice -We retain information better when we rehearse over time -Don’t cram 2. Serial Position Effect: when your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items 3. Testing Effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information -Also referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test- enhanced learning Types of Processing Shallow Processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words Deep Processing: encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words o Tends to yield the best retention Storing Memories in the Brain Memories are “written” into the brain o Electrical stimulation during brain surgery causes memory recall o But not stored in a specific place Even after removing parts of the brain, animals retain partial memory Hippocampus: a neural center located in the limbic system o Helps process explicit memories for storage Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): an increase in a cell’s firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be neural basis for learning and memory o Synaptic enhancement after learning o Enhanced communication between neurons o An increase in neurotransmitter release of receptors on the receiving neuron o Fundamental basis of memory happening all over cortex o Writing of memories = synapse changes Stress Hormone and Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories Flashbulb memories: clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events Semantic Organization in LTM: Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations (semantic) These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory o Activating one of the strands that leads to a specific memory to retrieve it from the web of associations o Seeing/hearing “rabbit”—activates concept—primes spelling the spoke word hair/hare as hare Context Effects: greater recall when learning and testing contexts are the same Mood-congruent memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood Serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the first and last terms in a list Déjà vu: means “I’ve experienced this before” o Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience Forgetting Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories Retrograde amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one’s past Process Description Failure Encoding Moving memories Encoding failure from STM to LTM Storage Maintaining in LTM Decay Retrieval Getting memory from Retrieval failure LTM Encoding Failure Short-term memory did not enter long term memory Extra effort must be made to encode STM to LTM o Rehearsing (shallow encoding) o Method of loci (deep encoding) Example encoding failure o What 7 letters accompany the number 7 on your telephone? o Objects are seen frequently but information is never encoded into LTM Memory Decay Even if a memory trace is properly encoded, it can gradually fade o May be due to deterioration of physical memory trace (LTP) Retrieval Failure Memory trace is present in LTM but cannot be retrieved o Inadequate cues cannot retrieve memory trace Tip of the tongue phenomena o Lack of context (a kind of cue) o Interference (retroactive and proactive) Retroactive Interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information o NEW memory interferes with OLD memory o Backward acting Proactive Interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information o OLD information interferes with NEW information o Forward acting Repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories Review Forgetting may occur from: o Not encoding STM to LTM o Memory decay o Failure to retrieve from LTM Retroactive/proactive interference Memory Construction While retrieving our memories, we filter or fill-in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event Source amnesia: attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined o Also called source misattribution Source amnesia and misinformation affect are at the heart of many false memories Misinformation and Imagination effects o Two groups asked: How fast were the cars going when they (hit/smashed into) each other? o A week later they were asked: was there any broken glass? o Group B responded yes which was double the percentage of group A Constructed Memories o Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories Improving memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall 2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material 3. Make material personally meaningful 4. Use mnemonic devices a. Associate with peg words—something already stored b. Make up a story c. Chunk—acronyms 5. Activate retrieval cues—mentally recreate the situation and mood 6. Recall events while they are fresh—before you encounter misinformation 7. Minimize interference a. Test your own knowledge b. Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Shelly was able to remember the names of three new class members for only a minute or two after they had been introduced to her. The new class members’ names were briefly stored in her _______ memory. a. Flashbulb b. Implicit c. Short-term memory d. Iconic 2. Highly durable memories can often be retrieved from _______ memory into ______ memory. a. Sensory; working b. Working; sensory c. Working; long-term d. Long-term; working 3. A conscious memory of the name of the first president of the United States is a(n) _______ memory. a. Iconic b. Explicit c. Procedural d. State-dependent 4. Cheri doesn’t remember that she got sick after eating oatmeal on several occasions in early childhood. However, whenever she smells oatmeal she experiences a classically conditioned feeling of nausea. Cheri’s conditioned reaction indicates that she retains a(n) _______ memory. a. Flashbulb b. Echoic c. Iconic d. Implicit 5. You are most likely to automatically encode information about a. Politicians’ names b. Friends’ birthdays c. New phone numbers d. The sequence of your days events 6. Encoding words based on the appearance of the word’s letters involves a. The spacing effect b. Shallow processing c. Flashbulb memory d. Deep processing 7. Ebbinghaus found that memorizing familiar words required much less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables. This best illustrates the advantage of a. The spacing effect b. Implicit memory c. Source amnesia d. Semantic processing 8. Cerebellum is to _______ memory as hippocampus is to _______ memory. a. Short-term; long-term b. Long-term; short-term c. Implicit; explicit d. Explicit; implicit 9. When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of a. Implicit memory b. Source amnesia c. Semantic processing d. State-dependent memory QUIZ ANSWERS 1) C 2) D 3) B 4) D 5) D 6) B 7) D 8) C 9) C