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Week 8- The Roaring Twenties and The Great Crash

by: Asia Caldwell

Week 8- The Roaring Twenties and The Great Crash 32763

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 32763 > Week 8 The Roaring Twenties and The Great Crash
Asia Caldwell
GPA 3.68

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These are the notes from Monday and Wednesday's lecture classes. Good Luck Studying!
History 1051
Dr. Prokopowicz
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Monday, February 29, 2016 The Roaring Twenties  Gave challenges at looking at the new world: Darwin, Freud, Friedrick Nietzche, and  Albert Einstein  Rebirth of Klu Klux Klan in the 1920’s  Nativism: The foreign connections of so many political radicals convinced many people  that the troublemakers in the postwar era were foreign­born.  Nicola Sacco (shoemaker) and Bartolomeo Vanzeti (fish peddle): on May 5, 1920 they  were arrested for stealing $16,000 from a shoe factory and killing the paymaster and a  guard. o Became a hug public spectacle  Emergency Immigration Act of 1921: restricted European arrivals each year to 3 percent  of the total number of each nationality represented in the 1910 census  Immigration Act of 1924: reduced the number to 2 percent based on the 1890 census  Women and Prohibition o Women’s Christian Temperance Union and Anti­Saloon League: launched a  campaign for a national prohibition law  January 16, 1917: 18  Amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and  transportation of intoxicating liquors.    The Yale Club in Manhattan, stored enough liquor to subsist for the  fourteen years that Prohibitions was enforced  Bootlegging: was the making, distribution, or selling of liquor illegally.   Speakeasies: illegal “bootleg” liquor was sold  The Federal Government forced 1500 agents to push for prohibition of alcohol  o 30 agents for each state o Not supported much  Progressives who supported soon changed their mind o They felt as if it no longer benefited, it hindered o Alcohol is now imported illegally  Moonshine is imported  Al “Scarface” Capone: seized control of the huge illegal liquor business in the city  In 1927 his Chicago­based bootlegging, prostitution, and gambling empire brought him an income of $60 million.  11 years in prison  The Roaring Twenties: During those years a cosmopolitan urban America confronted an  insular, rural America, and cultural conflict reached new levels of tension.  Sex could be discussed with a new frankness during the 1920s  Flapper: o Fashion included: bobbed hair, minimal undergarments, gauzy fabrics, sheer  stocking, cigarettes, booze, makeup, jazz dancing  Harlem Renaissance: The nation’s first self­conscious black literary and artistic  movement o Cultivate racial equality by promoting African American cultural achievements  New Negro Movement: an effort to promote racial equality by celebrating the cultural  contributions of African Americans  Jazz Age: was a period in the 1920s, ending with the Great Depression, in which jazz  music and dance styles became popular o Notable for increased prosperity, liberated or hedonistic social behavior, rise in  production and consumption of bootleg liquor, and the development of jazz and  ragtime and associated ballroom dances.  Marcus Garvey (Garveyism): brought to the all­black Harlem neighborhood the  headquarters of the Universal Negro Improvement Association o Saw every white person as potential Klansman  First major black leader to champion black power  Automobile is used because of this decade o Ford’s reliable Model T  1908; cost $850  1924; cost $294  Automobile changes everything o Everyday behavior  Dating – walking vs. being picked up in a car  Working­ living in city vs. suburb  Vacation­ going anywhere for vacation  Industries­ drives on new pave ways; first transcontinental highway is now highway 30  Puts more money in works pocket  Henry ford: paid workers $5 a day o Workers could now afford cars  Radios were used; and were served for basic communication until 1920 o Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) o National Broadcasting Company (NBC)  People brought refrigerators, washing machines, carpet  Buy today, pay later: consumer credit; individual consumers could buy anything on  credit, no need for bank    Advertising becomes big o Billboards o Radio­ soap operas and other commercials  Bruce Barton­ The Book Nobody Knows    New era of technology: o Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer  First popular movie with sound (white actor performing in white face) o 1920 Era of Optimism  Charles A. Lindberge: Flies across Atlantic Ocean by himself o 1920: Age of American Sports  Baseball 1927 New York Yankees  Football: Harold Edward “Red” Grange  Boxing: James Joseph “Gene” Tunney and Jack Dempsey  Golf; Bobby Jones  Swimming  Horse racing  People are buying stocks o Stock market are going up o If can’t afford, buy on credit  Politics o Warren G. Harden 1920 promises to return the country to normalcy  Personally honest   Numerous scandals  Teapot Dome Scandal: a government scandal involving a former United  States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private  oil company in 1921  Lead to a major government scandal and the tarnishing of the  reputation of President Warren G. Harding's administration   Over time people considered him the worst president of all time  Followed by Coolidge (30) and Hoover (31)  WW1 ends and Woodrow Wilson go and discuss peace  Civil war in Russia o USA gets involved   Troops land in Siberia   In USA and Europe: make sure those who caused war can’t do it again o Make sure they can’t create weapons o Battleships­ countries with more battleships had more power o 1922: The Washington Naval Treaty:  US and Great Britain agree to stop building large battleships  Ratio 5:5:3  No new battleships built for the next 10 years o Sign agreements  Alliances  The 5 Power Treaty: divided up the Pacific Ocean (stopped fighting over  who ships could go where)  The League of Nations: A world organization established in 1920 to  promote international cooperation and peace.    first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson  The Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928: international agreement in which  signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts of  whatever nature, which may arise among them.  Parties failing to abide by this promise should be denied of the  benefits furnished by this treaty  Signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27,  1928  Made war illegal  Sign of the optimism of the Roaring Twenties  USA backed away from national affairs  Thomas Wolf  Tax rose o Tariff got higher and higher  Treaty of Versailles: It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919.             Adolf Hitler:  o Spends time in jail and creates a book  Blames Jews for all the problems of Germany o He takes Germany out of The League of Nations o The Axis: Germany, Italy, and Japan Wednesday, March 2, 2016 The Great Crash  Coolidge was called” Silent Cal”­ he didn’t like to talk much o He was simple and direct, a self­righteous man of strong principles, intense  patriotism, pinched frugality, and few words o Business loved him, labor and agriculture did not o He distanced himself away from the scandals of the administration  McNary­Haugen bill: sought to secure equality for agriculture in the benefits of the  protective tariff o The bill called for surplus American crops to be sold on the world market In order to  raise prices in the home market  A Progressive party forms: Senator Robert Lafollette o Endorsed by many o Wanted to help the government  Lower taxes  Encouraging and cooperating with businesses  Standardization  Price fixing­ agreeing to charge the same price (monopoly)  1926­ the more production of cotton led to lower prices  Labor Strikes o Loray Mill strike 1929: government was sent to help stop the strike, but it didn’t  Female textile workers pit their strength against a National Guardsman  Mill managers introduced a system that doubled workers' work while  decreasing wages  Though largely unsuccessful in attaining its goals of better working conditions and wages, the strike caused an immense controversy which gave the labor  movement momentum, propelling the movement in its national development.  Hoover 1929­193 o Engineer by trade o Progressive in technology to make things better o Organizer/Planner  Smith was a nice guy, funny, entertaining o Son of Irish immigrants, Roman Catholic, and anti­Prohibition(opposite of his party’s platform) o Got twice the votes as other Democrats  Ford’s Highland Park Plant: o Detroit, Michigan o Taylorism: to make businesses more productive  Workers were required to make specific amount of movements on the  assembly line to get the job done  Florida: Real Estate becomes popular o Buy land for $15 an acre and sold it for even higher o Bubble: people buy things and the production and price goes up, then goes down after time  Germany: Tulips  NASDAQ  Housing prices (2000)  Wall Street­ Stock Market  Reason it went up: idea of buying sock on margin o Making a small down payment and borrowing the rest from a  broker  Stock Market Crash (October 29) o Stocks had fallen in value by an average of 37 percent o Revealed underlined deepness  Workers did not prosper, but everyone else did  Keeping prices high and wages low  Tariff made things worst  Tariff of 1930: known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff which raised U.S.  tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.  Unemployment  6 million (12%)  Banks begin to fail  Marriage rates went down  Suicide rates go up  Reconstruction Finance Corporation o $500 million for emergency loans to struggling banks, life­insurance companies, and  railroads  The Great Depression o The stock market crash revealed the structural flaws in the economy, but it did not  cause the Great Depression o Causes: high tariffs, lax enforcement of anti­trust laws, an absence of checks on  speculation in real estate and the stock market, and adherence to the gold stand o Some felt so bad and felt like they could only deal with it by suicide o Banks failed, businesses closed, homes and jobs were lost  o Responded: There is nothing you can do about it  Laissez­faire  Hoover was criticized for doing nothing  The “Bonus Expeditionary Force”: The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups —who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash­ payment redemption of their service certificates. 


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