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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
3-‐3-‐16 Learning Two types of Reinforcement: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement Both increase the probability that a behavior will occur again! • Positive reinforcement-‐ the presenting of a rewarding (or pleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred. • Negative Reinforcement-‐ the removal of negative (unpleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred The reinforcement in negative reinforcement is the termination of a painful stimulus! -‐A good example of negative reinforcement • Children often learn that, if they ‘over cry’ at the start of a spanking, mom or dad will stop the spanking • They learn that the over crying terminates a painful stimulus (the spanking) • This is negative reinforcement! In sum… Both negative and positive reinforcement increase the probability that a certain behavior will happen again! • With positive reinforcement, get something good. • With negative reinforcement, take away something bad. These are very different from… • Punishment: o Decreases the probability that a certain behavior will occur again o Here a certain behavior leads to something bad 1. Primary punishment a. Punishment with stimuli that naturally cause pain i. Spanking a child ii. Shocking a rat 2. Secondary Punishment a. Punishment with stimuli that are associated with pain (but do not actually inflect physical pain) i. A frown ii. A cold stare iii. Saying “no” loudly iv. Acting aloof b. A common type of secondary punishment… i. Is the removal of a pleasant stimulus (where something good is taken away) • Getting a traffic ticket • Being grounded • No gaming for a week • Getting a time out • Sitting in a corner -‐ This is not negative reinforcement o Remember, negative reinforcement involves the removal of unpleasant stimulus Is punishment effective? -‐It does suppress simple behavior patterns for the short term! -‐But punishment has two major drawbacks that should be considered: 1. When the punisher is absent, original behaviors often return quickly 2. Punishment can only be used to suppress behavior! -‐In other words, punishment only allows one to eliminate old behaviors, NOT teach new behaviors -‐Research shows that punishment can be effective but only under two conditions: 1. Only secondary punishment should be used 2. Positive reinforcement should always be used along with the secondary punishment -‐The combination of secondary punishment and positive reinforcement are very effective in shaping behavior Why shouldn’t we use primary punishment (especially with children)? • Data shows that… o Approximately 80% of US adults agree that it is “okay” to spank a child “under certain circumstances” • Problem? o Research show very clearly that it is NOT “okay” to hit children! • Spanking leads to some extremely negative consequences! o The main problem with using primary punishment: § Children imitate parental aggression! • People who use physical punishment with their kids: 1. End up with children who will use physical aggression when they are parents 2. Had parents who used physical aggression with them • Children imitate their parents**