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week 8 notes

by: Emma Notetaker

week 8 notes NSCI 4510

Emma Notetaker
GPA 3.975

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lecture notes for week 8
Biological Psychology
Dr. Colombo
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 4510 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Colombo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Neuroscience at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Week 8 Emotions • components: • feelings: subjective, internal state (different for everyone) • actions: evolutionary component (ex: attacking, defending, etc) functional role of emotion • • physiological arousal: somatic/autonomic responses • motivational programs • folk psychology: • stimulus —> perception/interpretation —> experience emotion (ex: fear) —> specific autonomic arousal patterns (ex: heart racing, sweating, etc.) autonomics responses caused by emotional experience • • James-Lange theory • stimulus —> perception/interpretation —> specific pattern of autonomic arousal —> particular emotion experienced • autonomic response is BEFORE emotion - experienced emotion is a result of the pattern of autonomic arousal each emotion must have specific pattern of arousal (source of criticism for this theory) • • Cannon-Bard theory: • stimulus —> perception/interpretation —> GENERAL autonomic arousal AND particular emotional experience • bodily response and emotional experience are simultaneous • parallel processing Schachter’s cognitive attribution model • • stimulus —> perception/information —> stimulus AND context • stimulus —> general autonomic arousal —> particular emotional response —> feedback to perception and interpretation • context —> particular emotional experience —> FEEDBACK to perception and interpretation study conducted where subjects injected with epinephrine • • activates autonomic (sympathetic) nervous system • told some people - because they knew, they did not interpret bodily reaction in an emotional way • did not tell others - these attributed heart racing/sweating to emotions • one group with happy confederate these people tended to report feeling happy • • one group with angry confederate • tended to report feeling angry • context dictated emotional experience (reaction to epinephrine) • supports Schachter’s cognitive attribution model • are there a select number of emotional states?? or is it a spectrum?? set number (about 8) of opposing emotions on orthogonal spectrum • • BUT these emotions vary in intensity • ex: high intensity is loathing, medium is disgust, low is boredom • facial expressions: Darwin questioned whether universal or culturally determined • happiness tends to be almost completely agreed on throughout all groups 1 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • mostly agreed on in literate (both nonwestern and western) • in a study other than happiness, in isolated non-literate groups there is less agreement in each culture, there is mediation by culture-specific display rules • • there are universal expressions, but different cultures have different levels of acceptance for emotional display • facial expression physiology: • control of facial muscles by different cranial nerves • VII: facial nerve - controls superficial muscles (expression) branches: • • temporal • zygomatic • buccal • mandibular • V: trigeminal - controls jaw muscles facial muscles: • • temporalis • frontalis • orbicularis oculi • levator labii superioris • facial feedback hypothesis when you smile, brain interprets (via motor output of cranial nerves) type of expression • • brain uses this information to make decisions about how you feel • if you feel sad, smile (forces brain to think you’re happier) • put a pencil between your teeth (to mimic smile) • college students rated cartoons as funnier • students who had pencil under the nose (to mimic sad face) thought comics were less funny • Botox flattens emotional experience • Papez circuit: • original circuit of emotion • experience of emotion determined by activity in cingulate cortex and other cortical areas • emotional expression governed by hypothalamus • cingulate projects to hippocampus which projects to hypothalamus (via fornix) • then goes to cortex • limbic system (McLane’s triune brain) • cingulate circuitry from thalamus, cingulate feeding back to hippocampus/mammillary bodies and amygdala • cholinergic nuclei in basal forebrain spread through cortex • sensory info to thalamus, processed in circuit (looking at emotional components) • brain regions involved in emotion • orbitofrontal region • anterior cingulate - unexpected/surprising stimuli • posterior cingulate • amygdala • insular cortex • are emotional patterns associated with same brain areas? NO • sadness: • increase in activity in anterior cingulate • decrease in posterior cingulate 2 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • increase in insula • increase in dorsal pons happiness: • • increase in posterior cingulate • decrease in anterior cingulate • increase in insula • fear: • increase in midbrain (important) decrease in orbitofrontal • • anger: • increase in pons • increase in left anterior cingulate • fear conditioning - common way to study emotion in lab • conditioned stimulus: tone unconditioned stimulus: electrical shock • • animal trained to fear tone (associated with shock) - after pairing • blood pressure increases • freezes (motionless) • 2 photon microscopy: • engineer cells to have photosensitive response - fluoresce when excited rat cortex exposed (in this study, frontal lobe) and covered with glass • • excited cortex with light - able to see formation and elimination of dendritic spines • lots of controls: • tone only • shock only • unpaired • paired (result of learning) • results: after fear conditioning • NO difference in number of spines EXCEPT in the learning group • almost 2x increase of eliminated spines • pruning took place in the frontal cortex • no difference in spine formation • level of freezing increases with % spine elimination (positive correlation) • more spine elimination = more afraid • amygdala ONLY area in which lesions completely abolish fear conditioning • in limbic system, but only amygdala has this association • different nuclei • centromedial • central • basolateral • reciprocal connections with frontal lobe • can isolate all the components of fear conditioning based on connections within amygdala • pathway: • stimuli —> sensory organ —> thalamus • thalamus can go to high road or low road • high road —> sensory cortex/hippocampus —> amygdala • low road —> directly to amygdala (different nuclei) • projections from amygdala (these are all independent pathways - lesions in one allows others to still function) 3 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • central gray —> emotional behavior • severed connection eliminates emotional behavior BUT maintains autonomic and hormonal connections • lateral hypothalamus —> autonomic responses • bed nucleus to stria terminals —> hormonal responses • fear seems to be unique in that is has a specific area in the brain (not a similar area for happiness) • self-stimulation paradigm: pleasurable stimuli way to study other components of emotion in rats • • stick electrode in brain: if rat presses bar, neurons stimulated and nt released • can put it anywhere - some found to be aversive, some like being stimulated • areas most enjoyed are associated with addiction • able to see where rats like to be stimulated • rats must “like” whatever stimulations they choose circuitry in the brain - certain areas with electrodes that rats LOVE • • nucleus accumbens (part of ventral striatum) - male rats will press bar until they die (ignore ALL other stimuli - females, food, etc) • reward circuitry • mesolimbic (midbrain to limbic) dopamine system • addiction areas stimulation of ANYWHERE along this pathway is rewarding (especially nucleus • accumbent) • we enjoy dopamine spritz (small amount) - pleasurable, rewarding • cocaine REALLY stimulates these areas - hijacks system to induce a lot of pleasure • our brains have developed in a way to return to homeostasis • increasing levels of dopamine result in brain counteracting this - will decrease the number of dopamine receptors • brain wants to stay at the same level - leads to drug tolerance • in the absence of stimulation, this system is hardly active at all - reason that former drug addicts have difficulty feeling pleasure • areas: • cerebellar nuclei • locus coeruleus • substantia nigra • ventral tegmental area • nucleus accumbens • medial forebrain bundle • basal forebrain • at the neural level, we can dissect emotion into component parts • dissociable systems • behavior • cognitive response • VTA is the origin of dopaminergic projections • PAG more modulatory • different emotions seem to be processed in different brain areas (slide 24) • reward aka seeking/expectancy: • VTA • lateral hypothalamus • PAG 4 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • nucleus accumbens • fear: PAG • • amygdala • panic: • dorsomedial thalamus • bed nucleus of stria terminals • PAG anterior cingulate • • happiness/play: • dorsomedial thalamus • PAG • parafascicular area Stress • evolutionarily: system operates at a level that conserves energy • when we need to use reserves, we can enhanced performance is costly, but available • • responds well to acute stressors • our social systems put us under chronic stress, which we are not evolutionarily designed to handle • stressor: physiologically, anything that perturbs the system • body likes homeostasis - stress response returns us to homeostasis HPA system • • in response to stress, hypothalamus activates SNS to stimulate • adrenal medulla - releases epinephrine and norepinephrine (faster response) • neurocrine response: release of neurotransmitters • through axons • hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to release hormones that cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol (slower response) • endocrine response relies on release of signaling molecules into bloodstream • slow pathway • neuroendocrine cell bodies in hypothalamus produce releasing and inhibiting hormones • hormones released into hypophyseal artery (portal system), which connects to anterior pituitary releasing hormones: corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH) and thyroid releasing • hormone (TRH) • cells in anterior pituitary release tropic hormones • ACTH - adrenotropic corticotropic hormone • prolactin • TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone growth hormone • • tropic hormones enter bloodstream and get to targets • adrenal cortex releases corticosteroids • thyroids release thyroid hormones • fast pathway: • neurons travel through spinal cord 5 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • activate sympathetic system, which activates adrenal gland • adrenal medulla releases epinephrine into circulation study of stress response: parachute jumpers • • able to dissociate anticipation of stress (psychological) vs actual physiological stress • psychological component of stress response is VERY important • how you interpret/process stress has huge impact on physiological stress • hormonal responses affect thyroid, adrenal gland, testes • parasympathetic responses affect heart, liver, intestines, bladder inactivated in stress • • sympathetic responses affects heart, spleen, adrenal gland, pancreas, intestines, liver • activated in stress • before training: huge jump in cortisol with anticipation and after jump (first time) • initially, a huge drop in testosterone • after doing it many times cortisol levels fall back to almost baseline • • epinephrine stays above baseline after jump • norepinephrine seems to stay higher before (maybe to prepare) • growth hormone stays above baseline • growth hormone decreased before jump, increases after jump • study of stress response during transportation strike measures epinephrine levels - elevated epinephrine with crowded train • • in days before taking an exam, norepinephrine and epinephrine slowly increase until HUGE spike on exam day • De Quervain - 2000 • trained subjects to memorize 60 nouns (recall test) • one hour before test, half of subjects received cortisone tablet, half got placebo • later, took recall test • cortisone group recalled significantly FEWER words • cortisone release causes significant memory impairment • short term stress can be good, but long term can be detrimental (at least for memory) • more excitable animals have higher expression of “strex” gene • “adrenaline junkies” have less expression of these genes, so they want to reach the same levels as other people • everyone wants to reach same level, but some born with higher gene expression • individual differences in perception of stressors • experiment: 2 rats exposed to identical stressors (intermittent electrical shocks) • one rat gets signal (lets them know when signal will end) • this rat displayed much lower corticosterone response than the other • one gets nothing (no knowledge of duration) • displayed higher corticosterone - doesn’t know how long it will last • important psychological factors • predicability VERY important - not knowing duration of stressor potentiates stress response (better if you know duration) • loss of sense of control • outlets of frustration (ex: running decreases stress response) • adaptive components become problems if stress stays for long term • adaptive components: in SHORT TERM • mobilization of energy at cost of energy storage • increases heart/lung tone 6 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 • suppression of digestion/growth/reproduction/immunity • analgesia neural responses (altered cognition, sensory thresholds) • • pathological issues (if stress becomes PROLONGED) • fatigue, muscle wasting • hypertension, ulcers • dwarfism • suppression of ovulation impaired disease resistance • • apathy • neural degeneration • stress causes cortisol secretion • cortisol secretion tends to destroy hippocampal neurons • fewer hippocampal neurons leads to a DECREASE ability to shut down cortical secretion hippocampus uses negative feedback, acts as brake to stop cortisol secretion • • leads to more cortisol secretion…..cycle repeats • neurotoxic pathways • interaction of nervous system, immune system and endocrine system • these all influence each other • slide 11 cycles 2006 Sheldon and Cohen experiment • • somatic intervention • questionnaires to human subjects: • perceived life stress, life events, etc • subjects exposed to 1 of 5 viruses via nasal inhalation (or control) known to cause upper respiratory infections • after, quarantined for 5 days • measured levels of antibodies - immune response • those who had long term stressors (in questionnaires) significantly more likely to develop symptoms of cold/flu • those with acute stressors unlikely to develop symptoms • those with few stressors who REPORTED high stress levels ALSO significantly likely to develop symptoms • perceived stress can also decrease immune response • inflammatory cytokines operate as signaling molecules in nervous systems • neurons recognize them as neurotransmitters - affects brain activity • important in aging process - inflammaging (decreased cognitive function related to levels of inflammation) • stressors (social, microbes, toxins, impaired nutrition) • body defense system - ALL of these influence each other • immune system • genetic factors • endocrine factors • nervous system, memory/perception, coping and appraisal strategies 7


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