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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Maggie Cummings

Chapter 1 Notes Bio 121

Maggie Cummings
Intro to biological sciences

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About this Document

These are the chapter 1 notes from the reading in the textbook. definitions and explanations are included
Intro to biological sciences
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Cummings on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 121 at Syracuse University taught by Wiles in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biological Sciences at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 09/11/15
BIOLOGY 121 CHAPTER 1 NOTES Evolution the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today Biology The scientific study of life quotWhat is lifequot Life is thought of in terms of 0 Organization Information Energy and matter Interactions Evolution Hierarchy of biological organization The biosphere Earth as a whole Ecosystems forests grasslands deserts coral reefs Communities the array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem Populations all of the individuals of a species living within a specified area Organisms individual living things Organs and Organ Systems Organs part that carries out a particular function in the body Tissues group of cells that work together and perform a specialized func on Cells life39s fundamental unit of structure and function Organelles various functional components present in cells Molecules chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms Reductionism strategy in biology that reduces complex systems into simpler easy to study components Emergent Properties Systems Biology the exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its parts Two main forms of cells 0 Prokaryotic cells lacks a nucleus or other membraneenclosed organelles Accounts for bacteria and archaea o Eukaryotic cells contains membrane enclosed cells and accounts for all other forms of life DNA within nucleus structures called chromosomes contain genetic material Each time a cell divides the DNA is copied and each offspring is given a complete set of chromosomes identical to the parent39s Genes units of inheritance encode the info necessary to build all of the molecules within a cell DNA molecule is made up of two strands arranged in a doublehelix each chain has four kinds of chemical building blocks ATCG Genes provide the blueprint for making a cell39s proteins Genes indirectly control protein production through another molecule called RNA 0000 0000 0000 RNA is translated into a series of protein building blocks called amino acids Gene Expression the entire process by which the information in a gene directs the cellular process Genome entire quotlibraryquot of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome Genomics rather than investigating a single gene at a time researchers study whole sets of genes Proteomics the study of sets of proteins and their properties Proteome the entire set of proteins expressed by a given cell or group of cells Bioinformatics the use of computational tools to store organize and analyze the huge volume of data that comes from highthroughput methods Energy flow and Chemical Cycling


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