Week Nine Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
the goal of improving retrieval is to recreate types of processing that occurred when the event was originally encoded (a reliable technique is context reinstatement) context reinstatement: e.g. sometimes law enforcement will take the witness back to the scene of the crime a common problem with other techniques is false memories o e.g. adults over a long period of time tried to remember the names of schoolmates and there was a steady and significant increase in false names with increased time hypnosis is likely to lead to likely additional information (so there may be more recall, but it often won’t be accurate information) o hypnosis is often used when they think there is a retrieval problem (we think they saw more than they are able to report) o hypnosis increases confidence but not accuracy o people are more open to suggestions under hypnosis avoid bizarre/unusual hiding places o we might try to hide stuff somewhere weird to help us remember where we hid it o e.g. Prospective Memory remembering to do things in the future, as opposed to retrospective memory memory for intentions Time based o remember to turn to go class at 2:00 o take a pie out of the oven Event based o remember to ask Tyler about my tire problems o buy milk on the way home o attach an email to a file this is far less studied than retrospective memory, but there are many similarities (e.g. impact of retention interval) o easier to remember to do laundry after class if class ends in an hour as opposed to four hours prospective memory seems correlated with episodic memory ability failures are common and can occur even for highly important items or events, and even with short retention interval o departing from your customary action can make these failures more likely o being distracted can also make failures more likely o time pressure (you’re in a hurry and you’re probably gonna forget stuff) aging paradox: old adults often are more impaired in the laboratory but perform significantly better on time-based tasks than young adults in naturalistic setting (e.g. make phone call or “take a pill” at particular times) o this paradox is probably due in part to differences in ongoing task demands in the lab and everyday life I. Methods of improving encoding and consolidation A. Mnemonics 1. Method of Loci - requires 3 steps: A. identify sequence of familiar places B. create images of to-be-recalled (TBR) items associated with places. C. recall by "revisiting" places 2. Peg Word System 3. First Letter Technique (acrostics) 4. Chunking à reduce amount you need to remember B. Dual (multiple) encoding § Visual + Verbal or § Visual + Motor à Enactment Effect: Performing actions produces better recall than only learning the action phrases (e.g., “tear the paper”) § Varied study environments C. Comprehension - make sure you understand the material D. Minimize interference – e.g., study before E. Distributed Practice F. Use Deep Processing (not rote rehearsal) G. Self-Tests – testing effect: testing helps LTM Metacognition metacognition is the knowledge and beliefs about cognition, including awareness, understanding, and monitoring of one’s own cognitive state and activities an implicit consistency metacomprehension: understanding how well you understand something o can be really important for students because they need to know how well they know something Spatial metacognition: e.g. judgements of someone’s sense of direction or “am I lost?” o being able to judge if you’re lost or not o overall, we have good metacognition about our sense of direction o people who rate themselves as having a good sense of direction are usually good at some tasks pointing in the direction of a known location (e.g. campus sites) maintaining orientation (e.g. in a maze or underground tunnel system) Comprehension Monitoring (metacomprehension): awareness of whether one understands what one is reading, seeing, hearing, etc… o necessary for effective reading o failures to spot inconsistencies and contradictions reveal a metacomprehension problem (such failures are more common in inexperienced readers) o study found that about half of children spot explicit inconsistencies and almost none spot implicit ones o college students tend to over-estimate comprehension and learning and this is a failure of metacomprehension Metamemory: your awareness of how your own memory works (one’s awareness and control of memory processes and capacities o includes knowledge and beliefs about one’s own abilities, judgement of ease of learning, judgement of how well you’ve learned it, feeling of knowing (tip of the tongue phenomenon) o Self Knowledge: type of MM where you have some idea about how you compare in memory to people around you o Knowledge about differences among tasks (we know it’s easier to learn four words than forty) o Strategic Knowledge: such as knowing to use rehearsal; knowing that elaborative rehearsal usually works better than rote quotation o You have better MM when: easy material over learning/active learning: basically you already know it and you’re going over it again intentional vs. incidental learning (if we’re intentional, we’ll remember it better) feedback (we know self-testing will help us remember something o General problems in MM: we tend to overrate our performance (e.g. memory or comprehension) optimistic bias includes both foresight (overestimate future performance) and hindsight bias this can be adaptive (if students thought they were going to fail classes, they wouldn’t even take them) there is less overconfidence in experts with more experience and for easy questions o testing effect: people who are tested on information and then review how they did and why they missed things, will know the information much better
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