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Lecture 12 - Group Processes Pt. 1

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 12 - Group Processes Pt. 1 PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 12 Group Processes Pt 1
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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About this Document

We begin to discuss how we have the tendency to do bad things, perform lower than usual, act out more than we normally would, or change our actions, when in the presence of a group, or a large gath...
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
group processes, social loafing, deindividuation, social facilitation, social roles, social psychology, characteristics, anonymity, singling out, Impulse, deviant, group size, distraction, zajonc, solution, factors, presence, evolution, tendency
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  03/02/2016 ­ Group Processes Pt. 1    Characteristics of Groups  ➢ 2 or more people  ➢ Interactions are interdependent and influence each other  ➢ Help basic human needs to belong, get information, establish our identity, and  social norms  ➢ Members tend to be similar to one another  ○ This is usually due to the group one belongs to having an impact on who  you are if you spend enough time with them  ○ Adapting to the culture    Deindividuation  ➢ Why do people behave differently in crowds?  ➢ Def:​  the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when in a crowd, leading to  an increase in impulsive and deviant acts  ○ When we are around large numbers of people, we tend to get a little  crazier because we are less wary of the consequences (since the group is  so large)  ➢ When people become deindividuated, normal constraints against deviant  behavior is lessened  ○ Feel less accountable for actions (more excuses)  ○ ** Deindividuation does not require face­to­face contact **  ■ Ex: internet, social media  ➢ Factors affecting deindividuation  ○ Group Size  ■ The larger the group, the more deindividuated people become  ● they feel less accountable because it’s harder to single one  person out  ○ Anonymity  ■ The more anonymous a person is, the more deindividuated they  become  ■ ** This does not always lead to negative behavior, just more  group­conscious   ● increase obedience to group norms  ■ Ex: If you are apart of a protest, you are less likely to be singled out  ■ Ex: Kids going out in groups on Halloween, wearing costumes ­  more likely to take more candy because the person or people  around them don’t know who they are  ● If the person knew them, or the kids were made self­aware  (name is called out), deindividuation decreases and they  would take less  ○ Distraction  ■ Environmental cues that take the focus away from the self increase  deindividuation  ■ People in highly stimulating environments (lights, loud music, etc)  are more uninhibited than people in a more sterile environment  ● Ex: In a club, if you push someone, or yell an insult at a  performer, you are less likely to be caught or pointed out    Social Roles  ➢ Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to  behave  ○ Ex: Boss v. Employees in the workplace, Professors v. Students in a  classroom, etc  ➢ Major example of this was done through Zimbardo and his Stanford Prison Study  ○ There are potential costs to social roles  ■ People can get so far into a role that their personal identities and  personalities get lost  ● Probably a major contributing factor to why many ex­convicts  find it hard to integrate into society or why many of them  don’t change for the better after their sentence  ○ Major factors that enabled brutality in the study:  ■ Obedience to Authority  ● Experimenter gave orders to guards and encouraged tough  behavior  ■ Deindividuation  ● Guards wore uniforms, mirrored sunglasses  ● Anonymity  ■ Dehumanization  ● Prisoners stripped, wore prisoners clothes, given numbers  as names    Social Facilitation  ➢ Def:​ the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex  tasks when they are in the presence of others and individual performance can be  evaluated  ➢ Ex: People solve math problems, or other problems in class quicker because  they are in the presence of others  ➢ The Zajonc Solution  ○ How can we reconcile these opposite findings?  ○ 3 steps to the presence of others:  ■ Presence of others creates ​rousal  ■ Increased arousal enhances the ​dominant response  ■ For ​easy tasks, the dominant response is usually correct. For  difficu tasks, the dominant response is usually incorrect  ■ Ex: athletes and home court advantage  ➢ Why do others lead to arousal?  ○ 3 Theories  ■ Mere Presence Theory: ​ the presence of others causes us to be  slightly aroused  ● Explains animal studies  ■ Evolution Comprehension Theory:  the presence of others  causes arousal when those others are evaluating us  ● Social facilitation disappears when others are blindfolded  ■ Distraction Theory:​ the presence of others causes arousal when  others distract us and create attentional conflict  ● Non­human sources can produce social facilitation effects    Social Loafing  ➢ Def:​ tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex  tasks when in the presence of others and their individual performance isn’t  evaluated  ○ Old Definition ­ the tendency for people to produce less when their output  is combined with the output of others  ➢ What factors decrease social loafing?  ○ Performance is personally identified  ■ Ex: Doing group work but being graded on how you contributed  ○ Task is important to the performers  ○ Group is cohesive  ○ People believe that their own efforts are necessary for success  ○ Collectivist cultures and females show less social loafing 


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