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Biodiversity - Kershner (Feb. 24)

by: Shelby Taylor

Biodiversity - Kershner (Feb. 24) Bsci-10110-008

Marketplace > Kent State University > Biology > Bsci-10110-008 > Biodiversity Kershner Feb 24
Shelby Taylor
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover ONLY February 24, 2016.
Biological Diversity
Dr. Kershner
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Taylor on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bsci-10110-008 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Kershner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Biological Diversity in Biology at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
● Naming species: it can be difficult  ○ Issues with language, personal biases, and different naming conventions affect  the naming process  ○ So there needs to be a universal naming system for naming organisms  ○ Carolus Linnaeus:proposed that Latin should be the common language for  naming (wroteSystema Natura)  ■ Said each organism gets two names​inomial nomenclature  ● Genus, species (ex. Homo Sapiens)  ■ Came up with the system ​ierarchical nomenclature   ● Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species  ■ (1977)​Carl Woese: added​omain to the system of hierarchical  nomenclature  ● Domain: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya  ■ Because this system had difficulties with displaying evolutionary  relationships, it l​hylogenetics  ● Phylogenetics:a field that uses techniques and tools for reconstructing evolutionary  relationships based upon evidenc​ommon ancestry   ○ Common ancestry is observed by fossils sharing the same characteristics (ex.  hair on mammals)  ■ Also by using genetic comparisons   ○ Phylogenetics is a tool ussystematics  ● Systematics: method or approach for classifying and naming organisms in an  evolutionary framework  ● Cladograms​ (phylogenetic trees): shows relationships between organisms  ○ The base of the tree is the common ancestor, with branches that show different  characteristics (everything below it lacks that characteristic, everything above it  possesses that characteristic)  ■ ex. Lamprey, Shark, Salamander, Lizard, Tiger, Gorilla, Human  ■ ex. Carl Woese’s Domains: common ancestor (base), Bacteria, Archaea,  Eukarya  ● Bacteria and Archaea: prokaryotes (on the branch)  ● Eukarya: membrane­bound nucleus (on the branch)  ● Carl Woese found that bacteria and archaea differ in how they synthesize/make proteins  ● Ch. 27  ●   ● Virsuses: infect every group of organisms on the planet  ○ Morphology is used to classify viruses based on two characteristics  ■ Some sort of genetic material (RNA vs. DNA)  ■ The type ocapsid:​outer protein covering that encases the genetic  material (all viruses have a capsid)  ○ Also classified based upon genetic material (some where main genetic material is  RNA, some where main genetic material is DNA)  ■ RNA viruses are much more likely to mutate and change form  ■ The genetic material carries instructions on how to hijack cells and how to  produce new viruses  ● Virus structure:  ○ Tail: used for leverage to penetrate the cell wall  ● Bacteriophages​: viruses that only infect bacteria  ○ Very complex “virions”  ○ Virion: individual virus  ○ Tail fibers and whiskers: affect host recognition (if they don’t recognize the cell  type they won’t fasten on to it)  ○ Lytic Cycle​hases bacteriophages go throuto replicate  ■ Attachment where they penetrate the cell wall of the bacteria  ● Then injects it’s genetic material into the cell  ■ Synthesis stag once it’s inside the cell, the viral DNA takes over the  cellular replication and protein synthesis machinery to make parts of a  new virus   ■ Assembly stage all viral pieces come together, forming virions  ■ Release: where individual virions rupture and break through the cell, and  enter the environment to infect other bacteria  ○ Lysogenic cycle:the host cell does not die (different from Lytic Cycle) ­ inactive  phase for the virus  ■ Integratio the viral DNA becomes part of the bacterial DNA (leads to  prophage)  ■ Propagationwhere it replicates with the host cell genome when the cell  divides (can continue through many cycles until something breaks the  cycle)  ■ Cell stre food availability, environmental change, toxins (antibiotic)  ■ Inductio​viral DNA exits the genome  ● Then goes on to the Lytic Cycle 


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