Biodiversity - Kershner (Feb. 24)
Biodiversity - Kershner (Feb. 24) Bsci-10110-008
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Taylor on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bsci-10110-008 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Kershner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Biological Diversity in Biology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
● Naming species: it can be difficult ○ Issues with language, personal biases, and different naming conventions affect the naming process ○ So there needs to be a universal naming system for naming organisms ○ Carolus Linnaeus:proposed that Latin should be the common language for naming (wroteSystema Natura) ■ Said each organism gets two namesinomial nomenclature ● Genus, species (ex. Homo Sapiens) ■ Came up with the system ierarchical nomenclature ● Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species ■ (1977)Carl Woese: addedomain to the system of hierarchical nomenclature ● Domain: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya ■ Because this system had difficulties with displaying evolutionary relationships, it lhylogenetics ● Phylogenetics:a field that uses techniques and tools for reconstructing evolutionary relationships based upon evidencommon ancestry ○ Common ancestry is observed by fossils sharing the same characteristics (ex. hair on mammals) ■ Also by using genetic comparisons ○ Phylogenetics is a tool ussystematics ● Systematics: method or approach for classifying and naming organisms in an evolutionary framework ● Cladograms (phylogenetic trees): shows relationships between organisms ○ The base of the tree is the common ancestor, with branches that show different characteristics (everything below it lacks that characteristic, everything above it possesses that characteristic) ■ ex. Lamprey, Shark, Salamander, Lizard, Tiger, Gorilla, Human ■ ex. Carl Woese’s Domains: common ancestor (base), Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya ● Bacteria and Archaea: prokaryotes (on the branch) ● Eukarya: membranebound nucleus (on the branch) ● Carl Woese found that bacteria and archaea differ in how they synthesize/make proteins ● Ch. 27 ● ● Virsuses: infect every group of organisms on the planet ○ Morphology is used to classify viruses based on two characteristics ■ Some sort of genetic material (RNA vs. DNA) ■ The type ocapsid:outer protein covering that encases the genetic material (all viruses have a capsid) ○ Also classified based upon genetic material (some where main genetic material is RNA, some where main genetic material is DNA) ■ RNA viruses are much more likely to mutate and change form ■ The genetic material carries instructions on how to hijack cells and how to produce new viruses ● Virus structure: ○ Tail: used for leverage to penetrate the cell wall ● Bacteriophages: viruses that only infect bacteria ○ Very complex “virions” ○ Virion: individual virus ○ Tail fibers and whiskers: affect host recognition (if they don’t recognize the cell type they won’t fasten on to it) ○ Lytic Cyclehases bacteriophages go throuto replicate ■ Attachment where they penetrate the cell wall of the bacteria ● Then injects it’s genetic material into the cell ■ Synthesis stag once it’s inside the cell, the viral DNA takes over the cellular replication and protein synthesis machinery to make parts of a new virus ■ Assembly stage all viral pieces come together, forming virions ■ Release: where individual virions rupture and break through the cell, and enter the environment to infect other bacteria ○ Lysogenic cycle:the host cell does not die (different from Lytic Cycle) inactive phase for the virus ■ Integratio the viral DNA becomes part of the bacterial DNA (leads to prophage) ■ Propagationwhere it replicates with the host cell genome when the cell divides (can continue through many cycles until something breaks the cycle) ■ Cell stre food availability, environmental change, toxins (antibiotic) ■ Inductioviral DNA exits the genome ● Then goes on to the Lytic Cycle
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