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HY 104 Week 6 Notes

by: Emily Paige Montgomery

HY 104 Week 6 Notes HY 104

Emily Paige Montgomery
GPA 4.0

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Week Six of notes (Feb. 15 and 17)
American Civ Since 1865
Dr. Kari Frederickson
Class Notes
UA, university of alabama, history, HY, 104, HY 104, week of notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kari Frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see American Civ Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
HY 104 2/15/2016 The Spanish­American War and American Imperialism I. General observations: Define imperialism  Policy of extending our authority across other regions of the world  Expanding into Cuba; looking for possessions in other places  Monroe Doctrine – the US does not really have the things needed to act out on the Monroe Doctrine so it is basically just words II. American interest in Cuba: changes between 1868 and 1898  Cuba was one of Spain’s last colonies  People thought Cuba was eventually going to become part of the United States  Cuba is 90 miles away from Miami  1868 – Cubans revolt and again in 1898  First revolution is put down by the Spanish  Cuban revolt and the United States stayed out of it because we cannot help them out  But then we get involved in the revolt of 1898, resulting in the Spanish­American War  (should be called Spanish­American­Cuban War) because we respect the Cubans’ rights a. Social Darwinism ­ Applying natural selection to humans and it is OK ­ The strongest win ­ It is OK if people fail, because they did not have the genetics they needed – they  were weak so by them dying off, it was good because the strong can reproduce and  create more strong individuals b. Closing of the frontier ­ We have reached coast to coast ­ We have made it from the East to the West ­ The idea of mobility, moving, setting out and staking your claim somewhere… ­ We need to expand now that we have made it boarder to boarder: going past the  boarder c. Changing economic conditions ­ Wages cut (causing strikes) ­ Economy is chaotic ­ Been in depression for years ­ People are getting laid off (also causing strikes) ­ We need new markets­ we need to send our goods other places ­ We need to get into China but to do that we have to get into empire d. “Yellow journalism” ­ How people learn about human/worldly affairs ­ Became tabloids ­ Printed sensational stories ­ Even hardly literal people can understand the sensational stories ­ What sells better than violence? ­ When the second war broke out, newspapers sent reporters to Cuba to collect  photographs and information  ­ The stories are greater exaggerated ­ A lot of disease was being spread so some of the pictures were atrocious ­ Exaggerated stories, “stretching the truth,” was known as Yellow Journalism ­ Makes people outraged because they are seeing how bad the Spanish are (even  exaggerated) e. Leadership ­ A group of men are coming to age to move into positions of power ­ These men were too young to fight in the war ­ Theodore Roosevelt  ­ These young (30­year­old) men want to go to war because they see the importance  of fighting in the war ­ It is a way to help them move into public service ­ These men want to prove their manhood III. The U.S. goes to war  The Philippines and Cuba are both in wars for independence  We are more concerned with Cuba because they are closer to U.S.  The president does not want to get involved  McKinley is hesitant to get involved once he is elected president  McKinley realizes how inhumane the Spanish treats the Cuban  McKinley tells Spain if they do not treat the Cubans more humane, then the U.S. will get  involved and Spain does not want the U.S. involved because they are on their last leg and  they begin to lighten up a. The U.S.S Maine ­ U.S. battle ship sent to Cuba to protect U.S. interests  ­ We think we are going to be able to avoid war, then… ­ 1898 sinks 260 men ­ American newspapers immediately blame Spain ­ The navy begins to investigate ­ The sinking was most likely caused by a mine below the battleship the Spanish has  planted ­ Later investigation found that the explosion probably was set off in the engine room of the battleship ­ McKinley cannot handle to pressure ­ Spain refuses to compromise with the Cubans ­ So, McKinley asks Congress for a declaration of war because he has tried  everything ­ A lot of Americans died of disease (about 5,000); others died in the fighting (about  100 maybe) ­ The war lasted about three months ­ There are Americans who believe we should promote independence wherever we  can and do that by helping the Cubans ­ But then some other Americans believe we should take what Spain has and make  Spain ours b. Teller Amendment ­ The U.S. has no intention of annexing Cuba ­ We have no intention to take over Cuba ­ Not a matter over empire ­ The intention of the war is still unclear at this point ­ Roosevelt sent Dewey to Hong Kong to take over the Philippines in case war breaks out ­ When the Spanish surrender, America forces are all over the place ­ The objectives are quickly changes: a war that started to grant Cuban independence  but now it is to strip Spain of its colonies  ­ Cuban and Philippines are denied participation in the agreement ­ We were awarded Guam ­ Cuba becomes a protectorate of the United States. We remain involved in Cuba for  a long time. In 1902, Cuba becomes a sovereign nation, with restrictions c. America’s new empire IV. Independence for Cuba? a. Platt Amendment ­ Cuba can be independent, however they are not allowed to make treaties with  foreign countries that by any means threatens the United States; if they do, we have  the right to intervene militarily ­ We require military land V. The Philippine question  Having presence in the Philippines, it will change the status of the United States  It is a stepping stone to China  The United States does not care about the Philippines’ independence; we believe they are  not ready to have independence a. Anti­imperialists: Motives ­ Apposed to empire ­ Some apposed empires because of race ­ They do not want a lot of Asians in the United States (we see them as inferior) ­ Industry workers do not want Asians/Philippines coming here because they would  be taking jobs ­ People thought we should not deny independence to another nation  ­ We did acquire the Philippines (we will be kicked out by Chinese but we come  back) b. War in the Philippines, 1899­1903 ­ The Philippines did not want the United States there, so they fought for their  independence ­ 200,00 American troops were fighting ­ Philippines are defeated and come under the rule of the United States ­ 1946: Philippines finally gains it independence HY 104 2/17/2016 The Progressive Era, 1890­1920 I. General characteristics of Progressive reformers  Progressive reforms are trying to impose order out of chaos  Progressives believe in progress; believe that society was capable of improvement  Creating bureaucracy can be solved with the help of the government  The government plays a big role  Progressives were not quite as radical as the farmers – the farmers were kind of scary  Known as “Populist light”  Profoundly middle­class  Most active were women  Many of the issues include: home life, and child labor, and childcare, women rights,  women care, etc.  A perspective of the progressive reformers is religion ­ Alcohol needs to be prohibited because it is evil ­ Christian element ­ It was the duty of the Christian to help  Moving away from Social Darwinism ­ Progressives believed one did not succeed because they did not have access to  education; people are working too many hours and their health is declining ­ People were not unsuccessful simply because of their genetics II. Categories of Reform A. Social Justice  Reforms that are based on social improvement  ­ Child labor public health  ­ Making society more just Muckrakers ­ Exposing the ills of societies ­ Writing about corporate abuses, child labor, etc.  ­ Upton Sinclair: published the most famous novel of the terrible working conditions in  the work place. “The Jungle” o Allure conditions o Talks of nasty, rotten meat being processed be sold o Unsanitary conditions in the slaughterhouse o Sinclair intended his book to lead to reforms for workers, but what it actually does  is lead to reforms regarding food o Pure Food and Drug Act – previously there were no requirements for the sanitary  of the food o Government again, is important in protecting consumers Public Health o Cities were disgusting – toilets being dumped in the street o Average life expectancy for men was about 50 years. It was less for black men and all women a. Hookworm campaign ­ John D. Rockefeller: gave a lot of money to improve public health ­ Hookworm became Rockefeller’s main concern ­ Hookworm affect 75% of everyone living in the South ­ Hookworm  Parasite ­ lives in your intestine, can cause anemia, causes muscle weakness,  shortness of breath, can cause developmental delays in young children  Related to rural life  Comes from: Lack of shoes and unsanitary outdoor toilets, along with poor diet  Enters the body from the foot; Comes from bodily waste  If you are poor and do not have shoes, you attain a lot of cuts on your foot so  when you go to the outhouse (where fecal matter is covering the ground), the  parasite enters your foot, gets in the blood stream, you cough, then swallow the  mucus containing the hookworm and you are infected ­ Campaign: move the outhouses further from the house so people are more  influenced to wear shoes; dig the hole deeper; also eradicating a medication to rid  of the parasite B. Social Control  Concerned with moral improvement 1. Prohibition of alcohol  ­ 18  Amendment ­ Ratified in 1919 ­ Consumption is legal, but producing is illegal ­ Why alcohol? Temperance campaign o No alcohol – control over your actions and quiets you o Social drinking was apart of southern culture o Southerners were very against Temperance o Economic component ­ Development of cities – more places to drink, increase in violence (including  domestic) increasing belief that alcohol is tied to violence ­ Increasing belief that alcohol is apart of immigrant ­ People began to support prohibition because they did not want immigration to be  accepted ­ Using law to make sure people cannot have access to alcohol ­ White supremacy: places where people drink are places where the color line is  erased so by getting rid of these, white supremacy is higher enforced ­ Congress passes the prohibition amendment (one of the most failed social  experiments) ­ Initially, drinking goes down and then it skyrockets because telling someone they  cannot do something, they want to do it more ­ It is easy to bribe someone into giving you alcohol ­ There was not enough enforcers ­ Taxation of alcohol after the end of the war results in getting rid of the 18  th amendment C. Political Reforms I. Initiative and Referendum (state­level reform) II. Recall and Direct Primary (state­level reform) th III. Direct Election of Senators – 17  Amendment (1913) th IV. Expanding the right to vote to include women – 19  Amendment (1920) V. Disfranchising African American Voters – By 1908 all southern states have rewritten  constitutions – poll tax, literacy test, other obstacles included in the constitution  Seventeenth Amendment  Make government more responsive   Disenfranchisement of blacks the right to vote ­ Makes politics more competitive ­ White people controlled elections via fraud (threatening blacks to vote for a specific person and stuffing ballot boxes) ­ By eliminating black voters, fraud is eliminated too; so blacks were eliminated from voting in order to completely get rid of fraud, thus making voting more “fair” D. Economic Reforms  Policies that make competitive companies more fair in a way that does not hurt  consumers


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