HY 104 Week 7 Notes
HY 104 Week 7 Notes HY 104
Popular in American Civ Since 1865
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kari Frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American Civ Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
HY 104 2/24/2016 The United States and World War I: Troubled Neutrality Code word for Midterm 2: Alexander Hamilton I. Woodrow Wilson, progressive as President Came into office as a Progressive reformer His goal was to implant his progressive ideals on the world that would take shape after the war Quintessential progressive Elected in 1912 after a four candidate race Democratic representative Governor of New Jersey before becoming president Princeton President before governor Intellectual Comfortable in the world of ideas Quite religious (will shape the actions he takes in office) Son of a minister Very strong moral compass Believes there is a true right and a true wrong; uncomfortable with “gray” areas – can make him hard to compromise with (hampers him later in life) Difficult to compromise with – very self righteous Progressive reformer: sought to fix problems through bureaucracies Breaking up cooperate monopolies; child labor laws Foreign policy dominates his presidency Extends progressivism to foreign affairs II. Outbreak of war in Europe August 1914 Lasts for 4 years – ends in November 1918 April 1917 – the U.S. gets involved 17 million people were killed – including 100,000 American troops France’s birth rate declines when they lose so many young men Cause of the war: o Two sides: a. Central powers (Germany, AustriaHungary, Ottoman Empire) b. Allied Powers (Britain, France, Russia, and eventually United States) o Alliances that had built up over time were set off after one event o The continent is now at war o Wilson wants to get rid of all of this o Imperialism is another cause of this war – everyone is looking for opportunity; competing for resources in the way o Militarism – arms race o Nationalism III. Challenges to U.S. neutrality Why did we get involved? We weren’t attacked. o Wilson wants to have a role in the “postwar world” o Wilson has an interest in the post war world but does not want to get involved militarily – which is why we did not get involved until three years into the war o The level of slaughter convinced the average person to not want to go to the war; also we had not been attacked o 800,000 people died in this conflict – not including those who are simply injured o France lost one million people in 1915 Technology of war – why is the war is violent? o New chemical weapons o New toxic weapons (mustard gas – you basically drowned in your own blood) o New diseases such as trench foot a. Ethnic loyalties Wilson did not even want people thinking of a side to take – he wanted them to stay completely neutral People such as Sarah Smolinksy were coming to the United States who are still emotionally tied to their home country and the people there so it is hard for them to be nonneutral in their heart and thoughts It was even hard for Wilson to think neutral Wilson loves Britain The British wanted America to come to help at their side The British controlled information – they sent rumors to America about their opponents to convince people to side with them b. Economic ties Economic ties to Great Britain Wilson says one thing but often acts in a very different way As part of his post war world vision, he is adamant that the neutral nations have rights and one of those rights is to trade with belligerents (people at war) Americans traveling to a war zone should be safe to travel. They should be protected; you should go unharassed; this is a struggle and naïve on Wilson’s part Great Britain put up a blockade in order deny the Germans access to the United States’ goods (medicine, foods, etc.) The U.S. has two choices: if Wilson believes in genuine neutrality, he should denounce the blockage and impose a trade boggle (tell France if they will not allow us to trade with Germany, we will not trade with England); or he can allow German trade to wither and die – we don’t do anything with the blockade Wilson chooses option 2 which is biased and not nonneutral In 1914, when the United States in still trading with Germany, their trade brought 170million Our trade with the allies was 800million His reasoning for letting the German trade die off, it is OK because they bring in less money anyways The United States obviously wants Britain to win because we get a lot of money from them We also were lending money to Britain c. UBoat Introduction of the use of the submarine by the Germans Challenges Wilsons idea of order in the world War boat rules cannot apply to the submarine – they cannot be searched and they are surprises Submarines were very dangerous – many men died due to malfunctions Submarines were weapons of terror and could not adhere to progressive principles IV. Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915 Germany announced they were going to sink every enemy boat on their plains Germany begins to use UBoats in a consistent manner U.S. says we will hold Germany accountable for any unlawful act Lusitania: British Ocean Liner – NOT war ship. 1,200 people died in the attack The Lusitania was carrying contraband and war weapons Sunk in 1915; another sunk in 1915 and a third sunk in 1916 Germany is trying to see how much damage they can do to merchant vessels without bringing the Americans into war The United States kept on complaining about their actions and kept threatening to get involved if they do not stop so they apologize and continue V. Wilson’s call for “peace without victory” A speech given to nations who have been at war for almost three years Given in January of 1917 “This war has been going on for a while, we need to cone to a conclusion. It should not be a war of treasure, there should not be a winner” basically League of Nations – Wilson created after the war; it 2 nations are having a problem, the league will create a solution without war The Germans do nit like this because they want to punish the British – they want victory Wilson is so committed to these ideas about how to war should operate, he cannot see that no one will buy into his new word order VI. The Zimmerman Telegram, 1917 February 1st German knows that if they sink every ship, the United States will come in the war but they think they can sink enough ships before the United States comes into war and they do; they sink a lot of ships The final straw that prompts Wilson to ask for war: the Zimmerman Telegraph Intersected by United States information officers Decoded From German foreign minister to the German minster in Mexico Message between 2 German guys He is trying to talk to the ambassador in Mexico and tell him “we need to distract the United States” “In Mexico, I want you to attack the United States” If you do this for us, we will help you get back all of the land you have lost to the United States VII. Wilson asks for declaration of war, April 1917 Warfare against mankind If we get into this, we are not getting into the war for revenge This is a war to make the world “better.” A world for a democracy In Wilson’s mind, a crusade Mentions again, League of Nations He is again, naïve The war is over pretty quickly after we get involved June 1917 we enter the war; the war is over seventeen months later
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