HY 104 Week 8 Notes
HY 104 Week 8 Notes HY 104
Popular in American Civ Since 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kari Frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see American Civ Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
HY 104 2/29/2016 The United States in World War I: Mobilizing the Homefront I. Concerns of government officials Wilson was very afraid that large blocks of Americans were less than behind this war effort a. Why were we fighting? We were not directly attacked We came close to being attacked by the Mexicans; but there were no actions – it was just a telegraph The reasons were less than clear cut b. Ethnic loyalties Many immigrants now living in the United States have ties to the central powers c. Groups opposed to war Traditional American Isolationists (Europe’s problems are their problems, not ours) Pacifists (relatively small group; Quakers, Mennonites) Socialists and members of the working class who follow radicalist ideas Not a lot of men are volunteering for the war (compared to that of the Spanish war) The men who are volunteering are men from wealthy families (the educated people) d. Response to the Selective Service Act of May 1917 Seeing that people are not volunteering, Wilson and Congress sign this draft to force men to war Men of age must register for the war and may eventually be called on for war Past in May of 1917 About 10 million registered on the first day Some people sign up as conscientious opposers II. How does United States government create support for the war? a. Propaganda Campaign Wilson draws on the yellow journalists to create propaganda 1. Committee on Pubic Information (CPI) Created within seven days of Wilson asking for a declaration of war George Creel (newspaper man and a muckraker) It is Creel’s job to increase support for the war (patriotic and financial) Creel uses Hollywood stars to support the war effort Harmless use of propaganda: Support national unity o People buy stock in the war o Kids save the leather from their shoes to have it sent off to make boots for the soldiers o People became more patriotic Harmful use of propaganda: Present Germany (enemy) in the worst light possible o Removal of German books o Removal of the German language in the United States o Restaurants would rename dishes 2. Results of propaganda Harmful use of propaganda: vigilantly group o KKK o “Neighborhood Watch” A. American Protective League Police for disloyal people Started by a Chicago man Many members were police officers They did not have legal authority They had some authority from the Justice to look out for spies They would harass people if they thought someone was not buying enough war stock and people who’s sons have not enlisted yet 3. Special targets A. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Labor union Radical labor union Advocated picketing and striking Seen as extreme Thought the war was a capital war (a war for money) IWW members became frequent targets of vigilantes The Justice Department began to be suspicious of the IWW members as well and raided an office and deported many members – they were seen as that dangerous b. Outlawing dissent: Legal repression 1. Espionage Act of 1917 Defines the transgression – if you are found in aiding the enemy in any way (talking men out of registering for the war) If you are in the army and you try to talk your members out of doing what they are supposed to do If you are arrested and found guilty you can be jailed for 20 years and fined 10,000 dollars “Espionage” is another word for “spy” 2. Sedition Act of 1918 Same consequences of Espionage Printing, writing, publishing, speaking anything that is not loyal Special target: members of the socialist party All in all, 2,000 people are arrested and 50% convicted of the Espionage Act and Sedition Act, a lot convicted were 1 generation immigrants and were deported Was the country any safer after these people were arrested? 3. Eugene V. Debs Labor leader for quite some time Working class hero Socialist representative Opposed to the war June 1918: He is at a socialist party He knows he is being watched – he says a few things… he attacked Wallstreet…he defended members of the IWW No one was surprised at what he was saying He had not urged people not to register for the draft He is just vocalizing his opinion of the war He is arrested under the Sedition Act Sentenced to 10 years; appeals his sentence and fails 5 months after the war is over, he goes to jail He runs for president from his jail cell He gets more votes in 1920 than he did in 1912 Wilson refuses to let Debs out of jail after the war is over – he would not shorten his sentence He is eventually pardoned after Wilson has a stroke and is succeeded III. Economic mobilization and social change Millions of men were sent off to Europe Factories still needed workers – we were providing a lot to the allied powers a. Labor shortages: Gains for women and African Americans When the men go off to the war, many jobs open up which bring great opportunity for women and African Americans Some worked in textiles But most women worked in domestics Women saw a boost in their quality of life Women began to serve in the forces b. Great Migration Migration of black and white southerners to the West Black men served in more numbers than did not with a healthy degree of ambivalence HY 104 3/2/2016 Woodrow Wilson’s Progressive Vision for the World I. Fourteen Points speech, January 1918, and the League of Nations Remember Woodrow is a Progressive “We can’t have these old business rules and treaties” In January, Wilson again says he wants a hand in the peace a. Wilson’s Fourteen Points Speech We need all nations of the world to be selfdetermining Freedom of the seas No secret treaties We need a new way of solving international conflicts: thus, the League of Nations b. League of Nations tries to resolve international issues without war Could be used as a collective security thing Really reflects Wilson’s Progressive ideals II. The Paris Peace Treaty, 1919: A Progressive document for a postwar world Wilson makes a series of blunders; he makes illtimed mistakes Politicized the war Does not build a coalition when he goes to Paris Wilson makes his participation in the Peace Plan an election issue (if you support my Fourteen Points…elect people of the democratic party) This was a year without a presidential election Wilson goes to Paris himself – he does not take any republicans with him; he thinks he can create the best treaty as possible, himself Wilson is welcomed to France as a hero British and Germany are better counterparts than Wilson; they want revenge They often gave “lip service” France wants their “pound of flesh” from Germany Germany is given a very large bill to pay 56 billion dollars because it will prevent Germany from building up its military War Guilt Clause: There is a bill in the treaty stating that Germany caused the war. The war was all Germany’s fault Wilson does win something – Austria Hungary is broken up into different parts. The idea being these new nations are similar; they belong together in a way that they would not have been if they stayed the way they were with Russia The League of Nations is added to the Peace Treaty Most people agreed with the Treaty – even if they disagreed with one thing, most people wanted the senate to pass the treaty III. The fight with the Senate The Congress is now republican so against Wilson’s party who are mad at his politicizing the war a. Article X If England is attacked, we will defend England if they receive a specific amount of votes Lodge says this takes away Congress’s right to declare war b. Henry Cabot Lodge and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Will have to approve the treaty Wilson brings back This man loathes Wilson Finds the Treaty as not as great The treaty is sent to Lodge’s committee He uses every tactic to delay the treaty Does he hate the Treaty because it is Wilson’s work? Or because he does not like what it says? Wilson goes on a speaking tour in 1919 to get Americans to help him pass this treaty In September, after a speech, Wilson collapsed of a stroke. For two weeks, Wilson is close to death. For the next six weeks, he is alive and it looks like he will survive but he is so ill that he cannot conduct social business. For two months, only his wife and his doctor were allowed to see him. For the remainder of his 18 months in office, he is essentially a disabled individual He has emotional issues after he recovers from his stroke The United States never actually signs and approves the Peace Treaty; we technically remain at a state of war until we sign something in the 1920s. The League of Nations still goes in to work – we do not join the league In 1920, people want to withdraw from Wilson ideas Why did we fight in this war? Did we act responsibly in the next war? IV. The end of Progressivism Postwar Backlash and the Reactionary 1920s I. Economic reconversion Transitioning the economy Building tanks and airplanes to one that is focused on domestic reasons War contracts are cancelled – people are thrown out of work; we do not need so many people making tanks and other war crafts All of the men who left the South to go fight, and left their jobs, were coming back and wanting their jobs back. There was not a federal organization to help military men find a job Inflation: goods and services are costing much more People getting laid off, servicemen coming home II. Labor unrest Job security People being laid off are going on strike – they do not want to lose the benefits they were receiving from the war What choice did they have? To go on strike. Most strike failed; National guard was again brought in People are concerned because they have been living under Propaganda because you cannot just “turn it off” Social Instability: strikes caused this fear III. “Red Scare” There is a radical movement afoot among Americans in general that could turn into a revolution There were acts of terrorism in the United States – not a lot, but definitely some terrorism In 1919 there were numerous occasional bombings in the form of packages People are looking to overthrow the country A. Mitchell Palmer and J. Edgar Hoover believe there is something much bigger afoot – they believe there is a vast group of these terrorists and they are going to investigate and find these radicals and deport them New Year’s Day 1920 – institute a series of raids around the country; raid union offices, the IWW and newspaper offices They arrest 6,000 people. Of those raid, they uncovered three pistols and no dynamite People wanted to feel safe, and Hoover and Palmer were viewed as heroes About 500 of the arrested were found not citizens and were deported a. Why is there a fear of a radical menace? b. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and the Palmer
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