Personality Psychology Book notes Chapter 4 and 5
Personality Psychology Book notes Chapter 4 and 5 PSY 260
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Chapter 5 February 19 , 2016 Personality Psych Possible Selves “We see the world as we are” Hazel Markus – the way we might behave might have to do with a conflict we are not even aware of. We may be afraid of who we are. Part of the way we behave is because it’s an unconscious stirring in ourselves. o Feared Self o Desired Self – there is somebody you would like to be. ** You might have a complete combustion between these two Higgins its not so about fear/desire. It’s about your actual self, who you are right now. o Actual: Who you are o Ought: Who society believes you should be You can decide which things you wish to discard and you wish to incorporate All of these things cause anxiety because we have to reconcile between all of these. o Ideal: Who you would like to be Expressing possible selves Discrepancies among selves lead to feelings o Actualought: anxiety o ActualIdeal: Sadness Possible selves distinguish between groups with similar selfesteem but very different social profiles (college students and delinquents) o We can measure selfesteem between college students and delinquents o *Read study on book for test o Same exact selfesteem scores o What they found was that the people that were the delinquents they had really good outcomes for things like “I like myself”. The big difference was that for their ideal self they didn’t see themselves as successful, where as college students saw themselves as having more success in life. o Delinquents and college students with same selfesteem scores were different in where they saw themselves (ideal self) Possible selves distinguish between groups with similar situations but different outcomes (poor versus good recovery from death of spouse) o We look at possible selves as who we could potentially be. o We develop different ideal selves because once you get to where your ideal self is – you create a new goal, a new ideal. Personality Pedagogy Formal and Implicit Models Formal models: learned through education, school o The model of success is linked to education. Informal/Implicit models: gradually learned through living and experiencing o Practical/tacit knowledge: how the world actually works o It’s an implicit and informal model that you figure out practical or tacit knowledge. “When It rains you go inside” Formal models are rewarded in society Perceiving Others First, researchers identified adjectives highly, moderately, and not related to extroversion (and, in another condition, introversion) Cantor & Mischel hypothesis: people will store information for “Jane” according to an extrovert schema Procedure: participants learned lists describing four fictional target people (instructions: I would like you to view these slides and try to remember the personality characteristics” Jungian Archetypes Carl Jung: o NeoFreudian o His most famous book is called “man and his symbols” o He talked about this “collective unconscious” we all share o He also talked about people’s personas and mysteries we might encounter Location: the collective unconscious: “this transpersonal domain is detached from anything personal and is common to all people, since its contents can be found everywhere…” Evidence: common phobias: snakes, water, heights; uncommon phobias, bicycles, knives, cars. Case Study: Archetypes o Schizophrenic Patient, 1906: If you squint your eyes and stare at the sun you could see the sun’s phallus. You can make the phallus move if you swing your head from sidetoside. The moving phallus makes the wind. Reported in “beneath the mask” There is some evidence about where Carl Jung’s theory came from Examples of Archetypes: o Mother and father archetypes: real mother, father, motherinlaw, wife, either positive or negative o Trickster or magician archetype: fondness for sly jokes, malicious pranks, dual nature: half animal, half human o Hero archetype: hero defats evil, slays dragon or monster o Shadow: dark half of personality, demons, devils o Wise old person: village elder, wise poet, elderly healer. Significant Other Models Parents, peers, nanny, grandma, aunt, neighbor. Their opinions, experiences matter to you, you call them first, you run to them first. Models of those we are (or have been) close to o They form the way we would want to be. o We have a few examples of those and we will based on the way we interact with them, develop a script of how we want our life to be. Example: parents, other caretakers, teachers Significance: we develop patterns with these individuals that we then generalize to others Transference – Freud o One of the things we need to be careful of is engaging in transference. o Transference – projecting feelings about some people into others. o When this happens in a therapeutic relationship – the ethical professional will refer to another professional. Core Conflictional Relationship Theme (CCRT) A pattern we have in relationships and its not only significant other relationships – its familiar, friendships. And we play the same role every time. Begin with transcripts from psychotherapy Examine them for key themes in relationships o If you do engage in research of core conflictional research theme, you will read transcripts of those patients and you will look for key themes this person engages in. These people are not learning from their mistakes and they are still doing the same thing. o All different types of psychologists recognize the same pattern. Identify those relationships theme and watch for pattern repetition Excellent interagreement reliability for identifying themes Can you identify the CCRT Theme? o Episode 1: narrator wants to get away from dropin visitor and resents the intrusion o Episode 2: doesn’t want to see therapist o Episode 3: imagines therapist is bored by his issues and imagines therapist feels intruded on by him o Recurring CCRT – repeatedly describes someone who wants to be free of someone else and feels resentful because it is difficult to get away (N=16 agreed at r=0.88, far> change) He wants to get away from people – social issues Attachment theory Harry Harlow o Harlow’s Monkeys – studied attachment o Infant monkeys are removed from mother from birth and put in isolation. There is neither interaction nor physical contact. o Mom (doll) is capable of nourishing The monkey comes to depend on this doll for comfort and security In primate infants there is a need to cling to soft and warm bodies. Then two dolls are put – one soft but without food. The other one is not soft but has the food. o Conclusion: only when forced by hunger he goes to the wire mother. (No warmth, no feeling of security, no comfort) After feeding he returns to the soft mother. The infant derives all the security and love from this soft doll. For 2 hours the monkey feeds from the wire mother and the rest of the hours of the day he clings to the soft doll. Orphanage studies o How should we measure this in children? Strange situation test (Mary Ainsworth) o Standardized testing module done with small infants – based on the way they act on a certain scenario you can figure out what kind of attachment they have. o Places the child under some stress – it asses the type of attachment the baby has toward their caregiver. Once Liza is playing a stranger comes in and starts interacting with Liza. Soon after, the mother leaves the room. The stranger tries to interact with the children. The mother returns – and the camera records how Liza reacts. (“The reunion”) Second reunion: Liza showed output signs of what is called secure attachment Secure attachment: when Liza left the second time and she was consoled by her other – she immediately calmed down. “Thank god you are back” Insecurely attachment: when the mom comes back the baby still cries because this doesn’t make it any better. o Adult attachment: There are more types of attachments. Three types: o Securely attached (empathic mirroring, good contact) o Anxiously attached (inconsistent; uncertain) o Anxiousavoidant/conflicted attached (apathetic) Personality Psychology Book Notes Chapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Motives, Instincts, and Needs Motivation refers to the reason people do things; it also can refer to a person’s desire to accomplish a goal. A person can be motivated by a situation “because it is there,” in the case of Mount Everest, or by identification with a hero. Psychologists regard individuals who thrive on excitement as “sensation seekers” o These individuals engage in potentially dangerous activities such as parachuting, hang gliding and extreme skiing so as to satisfy their need for thrills and adventures. Instincts, motives and goals There’s a distinction between basic motives or needs on the one hand, and goals that are learned or acquired from social environment. o Basic motives and needs include hunger, thirst, varieties of sexual behavior, and tendencies toward different sorts of behavior. (Innate but can be modified through learning) Historically, motives were viewed as arising from an instinct – an instinct is a biologically based urge that could be satisfied by a specification. Freud described motives by tracing them from their biological origins in the brain to their psychological manifestations.. o A borderland concept between the mental and the physical, being… the mental representative of the stimuli emanating from within the organism and penetrating to the mind *For Freud, human’s chief instincts were sexual and aggressive. o In the infant this instinct included any bodily pleasure: touching, eating, defecating. o Even curiosity begins with the sexual instinct because sexuality encourages people to explore the physical sensations of their own bodies alone and with other people. o By the end of his career Freud defined a second kind of instinct: aggression and death. Anthropologist’s arguments weakened the idea of instincts. o Their observations indicated that a given motive might be expressed in different ways depending upon culture. Then psychologists stopped talking in terms of instincts and started talking in terms of motives. o Motives: a biologically based and environmentally shaped urges or tendencies to behave in a particular manner (the reason behind a person’s actions) Other words for motives include need, urge, desire o A motive directs us toward goals or aims that will satisfy it o Motives are individually complex and may vary dramatically from the others o Psychologists proposed the existence of a “master motive” called selfactualization Types of Motives Henry Murray o Published Explorations of personality a book of the list of human needs o He and his colleagues identified these needs by using a special form of psychological testing known as projective testing or thematic testing. They used this technique because he wasn’t sure people could identify their own needs. Projective Measures of Motives The idea that many basic psychological motives are caused by biological mechanisms suggests that they may arise somewhat automatically and never reach consciousness If their urges conflict with social ideals, people might avoid thinking about these urges. In other words, people may often not know or accept their own motives. Psychologists sought ways to measure people’s nonconscious motives Projective Testing and the projective Hypothesis Key element of a Thematic test (projective test) is the presence of an ambiguous stimulus to which an individual responds Researches use the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o This test consists of a group of cards each one with a picture on it, (the best known card is a picture of a boy who is gazing into space, sitting at a desk on which rests a violin) o The examiner presents the card and asks the participant to tell a story about the picture. o Using the themes the participant created, the examiner makes hypotheses as to what concerns, or even preoccupies are important to the individual. Valid and reliable approach, the technique is well worth further research What motives are found with projective measures? Xu and colleagues found other needs other than Murray’s list. He found evidence for needs such as health, selfimprovement, honesty and efficiency. To simplify the long list, the threefold division was created. o It represented needs for achievement, power, and affiliation. o n achievement, n power, n affiliation. The N refers to the fact that the need is assessed with the TAT o N achievement includes: need to meet standards of excellence, the need to be superior to others, known as n superiority and the need to develop independent perspective on the world, known as autonomy. o N affiliation includes the need to play, seek aid and protection (known as n succorance) and the need to seek others who care for oneself, known as nurturance. Selfreport of Motives: Standard SelfJudgment The psychologists who like a more direct approach to find out motives use a method called self judgment (or selfreport) items These psychologists understand people sometimes conceal their motives and may lack self knowledge, but they are still interested in knowing what people will answer about their motives when asked directly. Jackson’s Personality Research Form (PRF) includes questions for each of 20 needs identified by Murray. Lei and Skinner examined the PRF and concluded that the 21 subscales could be described in five dimensions. o 1. Need for order and achievement o 2. Dominance and exhibitionism o 3. Autonomy o 4. Aggression o 5. Need for achievement and endurance Modified selfjudgment methods have been introduced because not everyone admits to their true motives. (Like watching a violent movie) Modified SelfJudgment (Selfreport): The case of forcedchoice responding Social desirability concerns the value society places on a particular way of thinking or feeling. o “For me, family comes first” is a socially desirable value in our society. To control the impact of social desirability on test responding, psychologists have developed a form of selfreport item called the forcedchoice item o This consists of choosing between two alternatives of roughly the same social desirability o The Edwards Personal Preference inventory, test items were developed to measure 15 of Murray’s needs by using force choice methodology. 225 item scale o Ex: Which would you prefer To watch a sexy movie To watch a violent movie o *These two choices measure different needs but are both low in social desirability o Some drawbacks include the way some needs are phrased in order to match the undesirability of the other need SelfJudgment and Thematic Measures compared Thematic and selfjudgment test don’t correlate very highly. Conscious selfreports and thematically expressed motivations seem to reflect to different motivational qualities. McClelland argues that selfreported motivation reflects what a person thinks guides her behavior at a given moment in time whereas thematic measures reflect a person’s actual longterm needs. o The thematically measured trait is more likely to guide the individual’s longterm goals (where one will go in life), where as if the person judges herself as being motivated by achievement she may choose to engage in an achievementoriented activity. The Achievement Motive and Its relation to personality People high in achievement set challenging goal that keeps them learning, improving, approaching their standard of excellence. They avoid goals that are so easy as to be boring or that are impossibly difficult. They are more persistent than others when their progress at various tasks is frustrated and they are ore prone to futureoriented o Additionally, people high in n achievement obtain their satisfaction from the tasks that they perceive as relevant to their goal. o *However, n achievement does not predict overall school achievement. o But, students with high achievement do better on the classes that are relevant to their future goal. Achievement imagery in society McClelland – study on ancient Greeks n achievement. He then went to analyze grade school students and found that their amount of achievement imagery was unrelated to previous economic growth but strongly predicted national economic growth for the years afterward. The correlation between achievement imagery and later economic growth was r=0.45 The Power Motive and Personality The power motive involves direct control over other people’s behaviors – interpersonal power. Powermotivated people tend to enter careers in which they direct the behavior of other individuals and in which they can reward or punish others within the legitimate policies and procedures of organizations. o Business executives and managers, psychologists and mental health workers, teachers, journalists, and members of the clergy. Occupations of indirect use of power (such as law, science or medicine) are less likely to attract those high in n Power. o Politicians high in n Power are more likely to initiate their own candidates for office. o Those highest in nPower are judges as great figures, but they are also more likely to enter the country into war. How do powerseeking individuals attain power? o They seek visibility by taking extreme positions. o Students high in n power, for example, might write a letter with extreme opinions to the high school newspaper. o Others might attain things that others cannot obtain (TV, cars, etc.) o Students in general build alliances with others, particularly with those of lower status to encourage them to participate in the organization. o People high in n Power are not well liked, nor are they perceives as working hard or creating the best solutions for problems. In addition, such individuals may seek power to compensate for a fear of being controlled by others. The Affiliation Motive and Personality People who need affiliation tell stories that include companionship, mutual interests and sympathetic understanding. Affiliated imagery is centered on maintaining or restoring a positive emotional relationship with a person. People with higher affiliation need to spend more time with others. They are more sympathetic, are interested in peopleoriented careers, and have heightened desires to live in a peaceful world. These people end up being less popular than others. o Presidents who were high in affiliation are ore likely to enter relationships and create scandals. The need for intimacy is important to predicting success in relationship Intimacy: the sharing of one’s thoughts feelings and inner life with other human being” The Sex Drive and related motives Freud viewed the sex drive as exerting important influence over a person’s life The first survey of sexual behavior in the US was conducted by Alfred Kinsey in 1940 1994 Laumann, Gagnon, Michael used a stratified random sample that was representative of the United Stated population. o If participants were ashamed of answering a question, the question could be answered anonymously by placing written responses in a sealed evelope. o The question of their sexual orientation was asked facetoface. However some people may not have been honest so its possible the survey underestimated the number of homosexuals in the population. o Findings: The survey found that the avg rate of sexual activity in the US is conservative, with most adults engaging in sex once a week. 1/3 of married couples reported experiencing little or no sexual activity over the prior year. The survey painted a picture of differences in sexual activity among people 2001 – Schafer develops a sexuality scale on which people describe how sexy they are. o Findings: College students who score high on the scale are more likely to be single, more interested in dating, and date for longer periods of time, get over their last relationship quicker and start dating again. High level also predicts having more partners and a more active dating life. Development of needs and personal strivings Maslow argued that needs unfold in a hierarchy, according to personal urgency o Physiological needs come first (air, food, drink rest) Safety needs (protection, order, security) Love and belonging needs (membership, caring, intimacy) o Esteem needs (Respect, status) Selfactualization (personal growth) People meet their needs through personal strivings. (the things people do to attain the goal) How a person strives affects how a person feels. Realistic goals generate positive feelings However, goals that are unlikely to be met lead to negative feelings. (also, goals that conflict) The MotivationEmotion conflict Motives are accompanied by certain emotions Plutchik identified 8 basic motives that are common to animals and are important to adaptation. o Selfprotection (fear), destruction, reproduction (joy), and exploration. o He paired each of these with an emotion. Izard found that aggressive motives were moderately related to anger. But most of the motives were related to several different emotions rather than to a single emotion. Affiliation motive was related to interest and joy Emotions can amplify or diminish motives. o Depression acts as a motivation dampened, reducing desires and needs until very little seems pleasurable and worth doing. The neuropsychology of EmotionDirected behavior There is two parts of the brain that relate to negative and positive emotional feelings The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) – described as “stop, look, and listen” system to emphasize that it reduces behavior and increases attention. o Helps organism monitor surroundings, anticipate fear stimuli and behave cautiously By contrast, The Behavioral facilitation system (BFS) encourages the organism to engage with its outside surroundings, explore and investigate o It is associated with positive emotions Happy, positive people have greater neural activity in their left prefrontal cortex Negative people show more activity in their right prefrontal cortex. Facial Manifestations We think of emotions as signals about the situation we face Charles Darwin argues that facial expressions of emotion have evolved to function as a signal system o Those emotions important for survival (such as anger) are more similar across species Darwin also argues that facial expressions were universal Modern studies of CrossCultural Facial expression Paul Ekman developed the Facial Affect coding system (FACS) o This is a method of coding the muscular system of the face as it enters into various emotional expressions o He collected 3,000 photographs of people and then selected those that represented the basic emotions of (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, disgust/contempt, and surprise) – 6 emotions He then showed these across cultures and participants agreed on the emotions 80% of the time. He then proceeded to do a study in New Guinea (preliterate cultures) o Although people identified the faces, they performed at levels far below those who participated from more developed nations. o Because the people from Borneo had no written language, they were unable to refer to the writing list of emotion alternatives that those in literate societies had used. o They then returned to New Guinea with a new approach: each participant was told a story designed to elicit an emotion while they then set out six face photographs. At the end of the story they would ask the participant to choose the face that went with the study. Initial Skepticism about Ekman’s results Karl Heider was skeptic about Ekman’s findings so she collaborated in a research project to check his findings She studied the Dani people of Irian (the most isolated on earth) o Heider went to Ekman to learn about the research technique used there and then returned to West Irian to test his findings Findings: o Heider tested two Danni subcultures, one known for their placidness and peacefulness and the other known for their emotionality. Heider found results supporting Ekman’s work in both cases. Differences in facial expressions across cultures were due to cultural display rules – rules by which people in a particular culture are taught to express their feelings. o Even though emotion recognition is universal, people exhibit an advantage when they look at faces from their own country “emotion dialect” – an analogy to the idea that people in a given country may all speak the same language. Emotional States, Moods, and EmotionRelated Traits The emotion system helps distinguish between discrete emotions from moods and from emotion related traits The emotion systems respond to a situation in the shortterm with emotions. o Emotions can be considered transitory states moments when the organism shifts into a particular configuration – afraid, sad, happy. o Emotionrelated traits are longterm characteristics describing a person’s tendency to be fearful, sad or happy. Charles Spieldberger drew attention to this distinction o A momentary feeling is called an emotional state o A long term likelihood of feeling a certain way is an emotionrelated trait He developed a statetrait scale of anxiety ex: a person could in an anxious state while waiting for something but not be an anxious person. o A generally anxious person would be called a traitanxious person o Some people use the word “mood” to indicate a mental state somewhere between a quick emotional reaction and a long termtrait. o Emotional states seconds and minutes o Moods hours and days o Traits months, years, decades. Individual Differences in emotionality 1960s – introduction of firstmood altering pharmaceuticals. o In order to see how drugs affected mood they had to know how a person was feeling o Vincent Nowlis asked people to describe their moods by checking off how much they felt a test taker was told to check off each mood adjective The Two Factor Approach to measuring emotion James Russel found a twofactor depiction of mood o 1. PleasantUnpleasant Mood (affect) factor affect is used in a broader sense than mood o 2. ActivatedDeactivated Mood (affect) factor simply referred to as “arousedcalm” Deiner and Emmons expanded this theory o Positive Mood (affect) versus tiredness o Negative Mood (affect) versus relaxed. These two run vertically and horizontally The positivetired and negativerelaxed run at 45 degree angles. The work of Hans Eysenck British psychologist – first to study personality traits using factor analysis He studied a scale that later became known as the Eysenck Personality Inventory that included about 120 items o His test measured two uncorrelated factors o E motionality – Stability People at this end are anxious, mood swings, and worries. o IntroversionExtraversion “Do you enjoy parties” extroverts answer yes Introverts answer yes to reading *a person high in emotional stability and extraversion would be located in the upper right of the twodimensional space. Whereas a person who is introverted and neurotic would be located in the lower left and described by words such as “pessimist” Eysenck believed his dimensions of personality divided into four quadrants, just like Hippocrates ancient divisions of personality into four humors Researches wanted to see if the dimensional model of mood and the dimensional model of personality were correlated. In other words, if a trait could be described to experience a particular type of mood. o Costa and McCrae suggested that a “highly neurotic people might feel negative moods” whereas extroverts might feel positive moods. Natural Happiness In trait terms happiness involves being low in neuroticism, somewhat high in extraversion and having general sense of well being o * a seasonal decrease in sunlight can also lead to rise in negative feelings Demographic Influences Income is only weakly related to happiness. o Correlation r=0.13 o Extreme poverty does impact happiness negatively. The Happiest Students Diener and Seligman examined 222 college students’ emotions repotted on a day to day basis. o The happiest students were just like everyone else in their perception o money, grades, etc. o They were different however in the sense that they were satisfied with their lives, and could recall positive memories instead of negative ones. As a person ages his or her happiness tends to increase and being extroverted and married reinforces this. To raise happiness we can practice positive levels of thinking framing what happens in realistic but reassuring fashions and avoiding overthinking
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