PY 101 Chapter 1 Notes
PY 101 Chapter 1 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
1 What is Psychology? Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology What if I told you that Facebook makes you miserable? Correlation between unhappy people and Facebook use Psychology is personally relevant to all of us, because psychology is about figuring people out. Psychological science: The study of mind, brain, and behavior all three are connected. The fact that psychology is a science may come as a surprise to students, particularly if they believe all psychologists are therapists. Physical and mental pain correlate in the same way. Critical thinking Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions. Some students may believe they need only think critically about statements that they believe lack veracity. They may be surprised to learn that it is perhaps more important to question statements that they are inclined to accept at face value. How important is it to question what you hear? Amiable Skepticism Openness and willingness to learn plus a healthy desire for evidence and truth. Source credibility: We don’t trust the right people, or trust the wrong people. Misunderstanding statistics: Powerball everyone gets 4 million dollars but actually everyone would get about 4 dollars. Relative comparisons: if we can imagine it, we think it is more possible. Hindsight bias: it’s easy to explain something once it has happened because you can look back on it. Heuristics: mental checklist of how things are going to go and you follow along it. Selfserving biases: If you ask people: on a scale of 110 how good of a driver are you, people rate themselves better than average. Overrate our competence. Nature versus Nurture: what makes a person who they are environment or something inside them? Mind/Body problem: what is your mind and what is your body and how are they connected? How does your soul interact with your mind, body, and brain? We don’t know. Cartesian Dualism: you have a mind and a body and they are just connected like a gland. History of Psychology: 2 Psychology emerges in 19th century Europe. It takes longer for sensation to go from your foot to your brain than from your hand to your brain. Experimental psychology began with introspection. Introspection how long did it take you to start feeling sad when your dog died? Introspection and other methods led to structuralism. Functionalism addressed the purpose of behavior. Memory is like repacking a parachute you have to think back on the memory and pull it out then vocalize it and then repack it and put it back in your brain. William James wanted to know the purpose of behaviors. Why did you cry when you dog died? Did the crying make it feel better? Gestalt psychology: the mind in more complicated, you cannot just break it down; you have to look at it as a whole. Slide 12: bunny and duck. Gestalt psychology focused on some of this stuff. Slide 13: your brain wants to create a pattern so you see something like a dog. Your brain does weird things but it’s really just bunch of black and white spots. The Unconscious Mind Freud’s legacy. A lot of his stuff has been overtaken. This time period began the thought that psychology could help mentally distressed people, or clinically depressed via therapy. Behaviorism The mind does not matter. What is this behavior and why does it happen? The mind maybe does not even exist. Cognitive Psychology Studies more about everything in the mind. We are basically really complicated computers with software. Science informs Therapy Different schools of thought lead to different methods of therapy. Behaviorism attempts to modify behavior. Drugs alter brain chemistry or physiology (antipsychotics). What Is Psychology? Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Why Study Psychology? What if I told you that Facebook makes you miserable? Psychology Is About Everyone l Psychology is personally relevant to all of us, because psychology is about ﬁguring people out. l Understanding others can help us understand ourselves. Explaining Human Behaviors in Real Life Contexts l Psychological science: The study of mind, brain, and behavior l And all three are connected. Cri▯cal Thinking l Systema▯cally evalua▯ng informa▯on to reach reasonable conclusions. l How important is it to ques▯on what you hear? and get a haircut. a rebellious one. Amiable Skep▯cism lOpenness and willingness to learn plus a healthy desire for evidence and truth. Candy Makes Kids Hyperactive Actually, that was a lie, I lied to you. Stay on your toes. l Wolrach, Wilson, & White, 1995 - Relationship is virtually nonexistent. - Situation & context - Automatically connect what you see. Biases and shortcuts come bundled with your operating system l Conﬁrma▯on Bias Hindsight bias l Source credibility Heuris▯cs l Misunderstanding Self-serving biases sta▯s▯cs Inferring rela▯onships that l Rela▯ve comparisons don't exist Psychology and Philosophy l Nature and Nurture l The Mind/Body problem - Cartesian Dualism l Psychology emerges in 19th century Europe The History of Psychology l Introspec▯on & Structuralism l Wundt and Titchener l William James' Func▯onalism l Gestalt Psychology What do you see? More History l The Unconscious Mind - Freud's Legacy l Behaviorism - Watson & Skinner - Mind doesn't ma▯er (or exist?) l Cogni▯ve Psychology - Miller and the Cogni▯ve Revolu▯on Science Informs Therapy l Diﬀerent schools of thought lead to diﬀerent methods of therapy. l Behaviorism a▯empts to modify behavior l Cogni▯ve Psychology a▯empts to correct faulty thoughts or beliefs l Drugs alter brain chemistry or physiology l Understanding biological and environmental causes leads to be▯er treatment Recent Developments l Advances in biology, brain chemistry, neuroscience, and the human genome l Evolu▯onary theories for the origin of behavior l The importance of culture l Diﬀerent levels of analysis - Biological, Individual, Social, and Cultural
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