Personality DIsorders PSY 260
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentina Mannella on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Personality Psychology Special topic: Personality Disorders Personality disorders are subsets of diagnosis that are just related to personality. They can be huge but its not something like depression where you can be medicated. These are not mental illnesses. (Little quirks) Building Blocks Maladaptive variations in traits, (low sociability and high anxiety) Variation in common motives (need for intimacy and need for power) Distorted cognitions (paranoia, criticism) Emotional core (volatility vs. restriction) o Very reactive or nonreactive Distorted selfconcept / selfesteem) o Self-esteem, thinking that they are way better than everybody else or worse. Biological basis? o Some of them do run in families Concept of disorder Studied by abnormal/clinical psychologists Disorder: pattern that is distressing, leads to impairment in functioning Abnormal: o Statistics they are significantly significant from the bell curve They are not in the normative range o Social Socially, even though they seem normal, they might still say that they don’t fit in. They have a different experience socially. o Subjective experience DSM5 – to have a personality disorder: “An enduring patter of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has on onset in adolescent or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment. Categorical (yes or no) Dimensional Considerations Culture: is the individual’s behavior disordered or just different? Age/Life circumstances: consider unstable periods of development and difficult life events Gender: social stereotypes? Specific Personality Disorder Eccentric (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal) Erratic/Dramatic (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic) Anxious (avoidant, dependent, obsessivecompulsive) What are some of the functions of personality we’ve discussed this semester? What are some of the characteristics? Personality disorders share many characteristics with personality in general o Stability o Gradual development over time and with accumulated experience o Organized structure o Share similar elements (emotion, schemas, motivations, conscious and nonconscious experiences) Changes in how we conceptualize personality disorders Half who met criteria for one DSM5 personality disorder met criteria for another personality disorder Some of the DSM5 personality diagnoses are rare (<2%) even in clinical settings Many people with serious personality problems do not fit any of the diagnosis Individuals with the same personality disorder can vary a good deal from each other. Linehan’s Diathesis – Stress theory Diathesis = emotion dysregulation Stress = invalidating environment BPD = emotion dysregulation x invalidating environment **if you don’t have the biological basis you are at decreased risk – if you do have a biological basis but the parents treat the child in a validating way the child will most likely express the disorder because of the disorder. ECCENTRIC 1) Schizotypal Personality Disorder Personality characteristics ranging from normal dissociative imagination to psychosis (Salvador Dali) o Intelligent, talented o Unusual experiences o Cognitive disorganization o Tendency to avoid people o Nonconformity All the core of Schizoid and Schizotypal Beliefs of Schizoid/Schizotypal o My privacy is more important to me than being close with others o “I manage best on my own” o “Relationships are always messy” they avoid people and isolate in order to avoid this messiness Anxious in social situations Feel different from others Odd and eccentric beliefs and behaviors Violate social conventions, nonconformity May appear: suspicious, make poor eye contact, odd, unkempt. DSM5 Social and interpersonal deficits Social and interpersonal deficits Marked by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for close relationships Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influence behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (superstitious, telepathy, sixth sense, bizarre fantasies) o Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily delusions o Odd thinking and speech (vague, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped) o Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation o Inappropriate or constricted affect o Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar o Lack of close friends 2) Schizoid Personality Disorder DSM5 Description o A pervasive pattern of o Detachment from social relationships o Restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings o Beginning by early adulthood and present in a varity of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the following Neither desire nor enjoys close relationships (including being part of a family) Almost always chooses solitary activity Has little or no sexual experience 3) Paranoid Personality Disorder Extreme distrust of others Interprets social events as threatening Harbors resentment Pathological jealousy Argumentative and hostile. Beliefs of Paranoid o Other people have interior motives o “I have to be on guard all the time” o “When people act friendly toward you, it is probably because they want something. Watch out” General description o Persistently bears grudges – unforgiving insults, injuries or slights o Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily o Has recurrent suspicious without justification regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia, a bipolar disorder or depressive disorder with psychotic features, or another psychotic disorder and is not attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition. Eccentric Personality disorders: Etiology Not much is known Heritability o More prevalent in families with Cluster APD’s and Schizophrenia Difficult upbringing o Authoritative parents ERRATIC/DRAMATIC 1) Borderline Personality Disorder Instability in relationships, emotions and selfimage o Always breakup drama Fear of abandonment o They don’t want to be alone Aggressive and selfmutilating o Suicide attempts – but they don’t succeed o Aggressive towards others – o *More diagnosed in women Shifting views of self Intense emotions – instability of emotions Often comorbid with 1 or more mood disorders As many as 7.5% of BPD patients will kill themselves: 15,5 will engage in suicidal behaviors in any given year Over 1015 years period, most people with BPD stabilize no longer meet criteria. Diagnostic Criteria: Instability of relationships Selfimage Affects And marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandoned Recurrent suicidal behavior Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood Chronic feeling of emptiness Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger Transient, stressrelated paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms Genetic Component: o Highly heritable (60%) o May also inherit related traits such as impulsivity and emotion Social environmental factors Parental conflicts Verbal abuse 2) Histrionic Personality Disorder Hey, look at me! I am happiest when I’m the center of attention Excessive DSM5 criteria: o Excessive emotionally and attention seeking o Beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of context, as indicated by five or more. o 1) is uncomfortable when they are not the center of attention o 2) Interaction with others is often characteristics by sexually inappropriate o 3) Easily influenced by others Etiology: o Really not much known o Toxic home environments during childhood Deaths in family Conflict/discord o Poor attachment to parents o Genetic links 3) Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Least diagnosed People with NPD have very fragile selfesteem Parental coldness and overemphasis on the child’s talents and abilities deep sense of shame about shortcomings Social Cognitive Model o People with NDP have low selfesteem because they are constantly trying to feel special o Interpersonal relationships area way to bolster sagging selfesteem rather than increase closeness to others o Often leads to rejection and greater difficulties with selfesteem. o Interpersonal relationships are a way to bolster sagging self esteem rather than increase closeness to others o Often leads to rejection and greater difficulties with selfesteem. o Ex: Charles Manson
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