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Personality DIsorders

by: Valentina Mannella

Personality DIsorders PSY 260

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY 260 > Personality DIsorders
Valentina Mannella
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Notes from class lecture on personality disorders. This lecture is included in the final and cannot be found on the book, only by going to class.
Personality Psychology
Dr. Jill Kaplan
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentina Mannella on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Personality Psychology  Special topic: Personality Disorders  Personality disorders are subsets of diagnosis that are just related to personality.  They can be huge but its not something like depression where you can be  medicated. These are not mental illnesses. (Little quirks)  Building Blocks   Maladaptive variations in traits, (low sociability and high anxiety)   Variation in common motives (need for intimacy and need for power)   Distorted cognitions (paranoia, criticism)   Emotional core (volatility vs. restriction)  o Very reactive or non­reactive   Distorted self­concept / self­esteem)  o Self-esteem, thinking that they are way better than everybody else or worse.  Biological basis? o Some of them do run in families Concept of disorder  Studied by abnormal/clinical psychologists  Disorder: pattern that is distressing, leads to impairment in functioning   Abnormal:  o Statistics  ­ they are significantly significant from the bell curve   They are not in the normative range  o Social  Socially, even though they seem normal, they might still say  that they don’t fit in. They have a different experience socially.  o Subjective experience  DSM­5 – to have a personality disorder:   “An enduring patter of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible,  has on onset in adolescent or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads  to distress or impairment.   Categorical (yes or no)   Dimensional  Considerations   Culture: is the individual’s behavior disordered or just different?   Age/Life circumstances: consider unstable periods of development and  difficult life events  Gender: social stereotypes?  Specific Personality Disorder   Eccentric (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal)   Erratic/Dramatic (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic)   Anxious  (avoidant, dependent, obsessive­compulsive)   What are some of the functions of personality we’ve discussed this  semester?  What are some of the characteristics?   Personality disorders share many characteristics with personality in general o Stability o Gradual development over time and with accumulated experience o Organized structure o Share similar elements (emotion, schemas, motivations, conscious and non­conscious experiences)  Changes in how we conceptualize personality disorders  Half who met criteria for one DSM­5 personality disorder met criteria for  another personality disorder  Some of the DSM­5 personality diagnoses are rare (<2%) even in clinical  settings  Many people with serious personality problems do not fit any of the  diagnosis  Individuals with the same personality disorder can vary a good deal from  each other.  Linehan’s Diathesis – Stress theory   Diathesis = emotion dysregulation  Stress = invalidating environment   BPD = emotion dysregulation x invalidating environment   **if you don’t have the biological basis you are at decreased risk – if you do  have a biological basis but the parents treat the child in a validating way the  child will most likely express the disorder because of the disorder.  ECCENTRIC    1) Schizotypal Personality Disorder  Personality characteristics ranging from normal dissociative imagination to  psychosis (Salvador Dali)  o Intelligent, talented o Unusual experiences  o Cognitive disorganization o Tendency to avoid people o Nonconformity   All the core of Schizoid and Schizotypal   Beliefs of Schizoid/Schizotypal o My privacy is more important to me than being close with others o “I manage best on my own” o “Relationships are always messy”  they avoid people and isolate in order to avoid this messiness   Anxious in social situations   Feel different from others  Odd and eccentric beliefs and behaviors  Violate social conventions, non­conformity   May appear: suspicious, make poor eye contact, odd, unkempt.    DSM­5   Social and interpersonal deficits  Social and interpersonal deficits  Marked by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for  close relationships  Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)   Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influence behavior  and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (superstitious,  telepathy, sixth sense, bizarre fantasies)  o Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily delusions o Odd thinking and speech (vague, metaphorical, overelaborate, or  stereotyped)  o Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation o Inappropriate or constricted affect o Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar o Lack of close friends 2) Schizoid Personality Disorder  DSM­5 Description o A pervasive pattern of  o Detachment from social relationships  o Restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings o Beginning by early adulthood and present in a varity of contexts, as  indicated by four or more of the following  Neither desire nor enjoys close relationships (including being  part of a family)   Almost always chooses solitary activity   Has little or no sexual experience  3) Paranoid Personality Disorder   Extreme distrust of others  Interprets social events as threatening  Harbors resentment   Pathological jealousy  Argumentative and hostile.   Beliefs of Paranoid o Other people have interior motives  o “I have to be on guard all the time”  o “When people act friendly toward you, it is probably because they  want something. Watch out”   General description o Persistently bears grudges – unforgiving insults, injuries or slights  o Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not  apparent to others and is quick to react angrily  o Has recurrent suspicious without justification regarding fidelity of  spouse or sexual partner   Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia,  a bipolar disorder or depressive disorder with psychotic  features, or another psychotic disorder and is not attributable to  the physiological effects of another medical condition.  Eccentric Personality disorders: Etiology   Not much is known  Heritability o More prevalent in families with Cluster APD’s and Schizophrenia  Difficult upbringing  o Authoritative parents  ERRATIC/DRAMATIC    1) Borderline Personality Disorder  Instability in relationships, emotions and self­image  o Always break­up drama   Fear of abandonment o They don’t want to be alone   Aggressive and self­mutilating o Suicide attempts – but they don’t succeed  o Aggressive towards others –  o *More diagnosed in women   Shifting views of self  Intense emotions – instability of emotions   Often co­morbid with 1 or more mood disorders  As many as 7.5% of BPD patients will kill themselves: 15,5 will  engage in suicidal behaviors in any given year  Over 10­15 years period, most people with BPD stabilize no longer meet criteria.  Diagnostic Criteria:   Instability of relationships  Self­image   Affects  And marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood   Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandoned   Recurrent suicidal behavior   Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood   Chronic feeling of emptiness   Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger   Transient, stress­related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative  symptoms     Genetic Component:  o Highly heritable (60%)  o May also inherit related traits such as impulsivity and emotion     Social environmental factors  Parental conflicts  Verbal abuse  2) Histrionic Personality Disorder   Hey, look at me!   I am happiest when I’m the center of attention  Excessive     DSM­5 criteria:  o Excessive emotionally and attention seeking  o Beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of context,  as indicated by five or more.  o 1) is uncomfortable when they are not the center of attention o 2) Interaction with others is often characteristics by sexually  inappropriate  o 3) Easily influenced by others   Etiology:  o Really not much known  o Toxic home environments during childhood  Deaths in family  Conflict/discord  o Poor attachment to parents o Genetic links  3) Narcissistic Personality Disorder:   Least diagnosed   People with NPD have very fragile self­esteem  Parental coldness and overemphasis on the child’s talents and abilities   deep sense of shame about shortcomings     Social Cognitive Model o People with NDP have low self­esteem because they are constantly trying to feel special o Interpersonal relationships area way to bolster sagging self­esteem  rather than increase closeness to others o Often leads to rejection and greater difficulties with self­esteem.  o Interpersonal relationships are a way to bolster sagging self esteem rather than increase closeness to others o Often leads to rejection and greater difficulties with self­esteem.  o Ex: Charles Manson 


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