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PY 101 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Emily Paige Montgomery

PY 101 Chapter 2 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Emily Paige Montgomery
GPA 4.0

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Psychology 101 chapter 2 notes and powerpoint
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Evan Kennedy
Class Notes
university of alabama, UA, PY, PY 101, Psychology, detailed notes, week of notes, 4.0
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
1 Psychological Science Chapter 2: Research Methodology  Psychology uses the scientific method ­ More objective than casual observations ­ Systematic: follows carefully planned order  The Scientific Method ­ Theory: interconnected ideas that explain prior observations and make predictions ­ Hypothesis: testable prediction for outcome that would best support the theory ­ Research: systematic and careful collection of data  Theory: Hypotheses ­ Good theories produce falsifiable and testable hypotheses ­ Occam’s razor  Occam was a Monk  Two competing possibilities one with more possibility   The one that requires the fewest assumptions are most likely correct  A tree burnt down: there was a thunderstorm or there were an alien attack in the  backyard ­ Walk or run the rain?  How would you find out if you get wet running or walking in the rain?  You and a friend test the hypothesis  How would you investigate? I. Hypothesize II. Review literature III. Design and conduct research IV. Analyze data V. Repost results VI. Repeat  Three types of studies: ­ Descriptive ­ Correlational ­ Experimental  All types must qualify and quantify variables o Descriptive: ­ Observe and note behavior systematically and objectively ­ People watching ­ Case studies ­ Observational ­ Self­report  Potential problems: ­ Reactivity (Hawthorne Effect) 2 ­ Observer bias ­ Expectancy (Rosenthal) ­ Social Desirability o Correlational ­ Examine how variables are related in real world without researcher manipulation ­ Smoking and cancer; texting and driving ­ Ethicality and Prediction  Problems: ­ Directionality ­ Third variables  Summer/Swimming and drowning  Not supposed to swim until 20 minutes after you eat  But the third variable is that we swim more in the summer than any other  time of the year ­ Correlation is not causation o Experimental ­ Manipulates variables to provide explanations  Independent variable (IV) is Manipulated  Dependent variable (DV) is Measured ­ Assumes control through lack of confounds ­ Random Sampling and Assignment ­ Generalizing  What about Psychology? ­ Difficult to study ­ Ethical issues  Study limitations, IRB (Institutional Research Board), confidentiality, consent, and  animal research  IRB evaluated research for ethical and scientific standards  Data Analysis and Evaluation ­ Data must be valid, reliable, and accurate ­ Construct validity ­ Internal vs. External ­ Internal: shooting at a target ­ Consistency, Reliability ­ Accuracy: free of error  Systematic vs. Random Error  Descriptive Statistics ­ Summary of Raw Data ­ Central tendency (mean, median, and mode) ­ Variability (standard deviation)  Correlations ­ Scatterplot 3 ­ Correlation coefficient ­ ­1 to +1 ­ Strength and direction of correlation  Inferential Statistics ­ Generalizations ­ Chance, or a real effect? ­ Statistically significant  Meta­Analysis ­ “Study of studies” ­ Combination and summary of different issues ­ Stronger than any single study  Psychological Science Chapter 2: Research Methodology Science! Psychology uses the scien▯fic method More objec▯ve than casual observa▯ons Systema▯c: Follows carefully planned order The Scien▯fic Method Theory: interconnected ideas that explain prior observa▯ons and make predic▯ons Hypothesis: testable predic▯on for outcome that would best support the theory Research: systema▯c and careful collec▯on of data Theory → Hypotheses Good theories produce falsifiable and testable hypotheses Occam's Razor What do you want to know? Walk or run? How would you investigate? 1) Hypothesize, 2) Review literature, 3) Design & conduct research, 4) Analyze data, 5) Report results, 6) Repeat How do I test it? 3 types of studies: Descriptive Correlational Experimental All types must qualify and quantify variables Descriptive Observe and note behavior systematically and objectively Case Studies Observational Self-Report Potential problems: Reactivity (Hawthorne Effect) Observer Bias Expectancy (Rosenthal) Social Desirability Correlational Examine how variables are related in real world without researcher manipulation Ethicality and Prediction Problems: Directionality Third Variables Can't assume causation Experimental Manipulates variables to provide explanations Independent Variable (IV) is Manipulated Dependent Variable (DV) is Measured What were the IV and DV in our rain studies? Assumes control through lack of confounds Random Sampling and Assignment Generalizing What about Psychology? •  Difficult to study •  Ethical Issues – Study Limita▯ons, IRB, Confiden▯ality, Consent, and Animal Research Ethical Issues IRB evaluates research for ethical and scientific standards Confidentiality & Consent Animal Research Data Analysis and Evaluation Data must be valid, reliable, and accurate Construct validity Internal vs. External Data Analysis and Evaluation Reliability Accuracy Systematic vs Random Error Descriptive Statistics Summary of Raw Data Central tendency (mean, median, & mode) Variability (standard deviation) Correlations Scatterplot Correlation Coefficient -1 to +1 Strength and direction of correlations Inferential Statistics Generalizations Chance, or a real effect? Statistically significant Meta-Analysis “Study of studies” Combination and summary of different issues Stronger than any single study


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