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Week 6 Notes

by: Raquel Notetaker

Week 6 Notes BIOL 1010

Raquel Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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1.9 Human Evolution 2 2.1 Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis and Cancer
Introduction to Biology
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raquel Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Human Evolution II Neanderthals and Us- although Neanderthals were big-brained bipeds like us, there are many differences in skulls and skeletons. Neanderthal Cranial Features Neanderthal’s Last Stand  Range gradually shrank to coast of Spain  Last remains found in Gibraltar cave  Date to 23-24000 YA  Why did the go extinct? Neanderthal Language  Hyoid bone identical to ours  Suggests Neanderthals had capacity for language  Human ears tuned for 3-5 Hz sensitivity compared to primates- adaptation for speech perception  Human-shaped middle ear in 400,000-year old Neanderthal ancestors  Genetic traces of strong natural selection on middle-ear  FoxP2 gene Another way of being human?  Exhibited care of others- altruism  Buried their dead  Made sophisticated stone tools  Made musical instruments  Made beads and other jewelry  Most likely had spoken language Humans & Neanderthals: Genetic Comparison  1987- paper in Nature analyzed human mitochondrial DNA- concluded humans evolved in Africa 200,000 years ago, separate from Neanderthals, spread to Asia and Europe  1997- 378- letter mitochondrial DNA extracted from 40,000 year old Neanderthal bone and compared to human mDNA  2007- analysis of Neanderthal DNA reveals we shared exactly the same FoxP2 gene associated with language abilities  2008- Human-Neanderthal DNA is about 99.5% similar- suggests divergence about 700,000 YBP  2010- close analysis reveals a number of genes of Neanderthal origin which have been preserved in Eurasians but not Africans living today. In other words, Neanderthals and some modern humans did interbreed The latest news… Neanderthals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of Neanderthal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neanderthal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neanderthals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub- Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow form Neanderthals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other. Evolution, culture and human nature Art, music, dance, decoration & adornment, religion, moral codes, war & violence, cooperation & altruism, pair bonding & marriage, range of sexual preferences What is culture and is it exclusively hominin linked?  Non-genetic learned behaviors- tool design, grooming, mating display Tool-making: Chimpanzees  Chimp cracking nuts with hammer and anvil stone  Use sticks and grass stems to harvest ants Human Nature  John Locke- human beings are a blank slate, born without innate ideas and behavior  David Hume- the science of man is the foundation for all the other sciences. Nature has endowed us with certain innate abilities including powers of deduction  John-Jacques Rousseau- humans are innately good when in the state of nature but become evil and corrupted under influence of society. i.e. noble savage, Humans differentiated from animals by compassion and free will On Human Nature  1978 Pulitzer Prize- applied evolutionary principle and scientific study of animal behavior to reject human nature as a tabula rasa  Human behavior molded by natural selection and hence has a large genetic component  Human nature then is a product of both our evolutionary past and our environment (nature and nurture) Holistic vs. Reductionist View  “one gene-one protein-one behavior” is unrealistic, simplistic, linear view  The impact of genes on out traits and behavior much more complex: o Structural arrangement of genes on chromosomes o Epigenetic effects o Random differences in gene products o Genes embedded in complex networks o Point mutations  All of these can affect expression of a given gene and ultimately its effect on behavior Unit 2 Genetics and Medicine 2.1 The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Cancer Karyotype of pancreatic cancer cells The pancreatic cancer cell karyotype shown was most likely somatic line cell and the abnormal chromosome distribution most likely occurred during mitosis Why is cell division essential to life?  Basis of reproduction for every organism  Allows multicellular organisms to grow to adult size  Replaces worn-out or damaged cells o Examples include wound healing, skin cell replacement, making new red blood cells What is the scale of cell division in humans?  Total number of cells in an average human is 100 trilllion  Millions of cells divide every second to maintain the total  Rate that cells divide layer divide once per hour  Differentiated muscle of nerve cells do not divide The cell cycle  G1: interval (“Gap”) of cell growth prior to DNA replication, biosynthesis of proteins, CHO, and lipids  S: DNA replication is completed and chromosomes duplicated  G2: interval after DNA replication. Cell prepared to divide  Mitosis or M phase  Cytokinesis or cytoplasmic cleavage  Each of 2 daughter cells enters Interphase At the end of S phase and prior to mitosis Sister chromatids held together by cohesion The Cell Cycle  There are checkpoint mechanisms at each stage that tell the cell to wait or proceed to the next phase  Checkpoint surveillance mechanisms ensure accuracy & fidelity in chromosome replication & segregation G1 checkpoint is regulated by growth factors Stages of Mitosis Mitosis  Somatic cells  2n to 2n  One division  Constitutive activity  No genetic sorting o Growth o Cell replacement o Asexual reproduction Mitosis is a vertebrate somatic cell (Rat kangaroo kidney) Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscopy Cancer  As shown previously there are chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer  There is also a loss of growth control of cells because these cells (transformed cells) stop responding appropriately to cell cycle controls Malignant tumor of the breast


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