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Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Learning

by: Stephanie Notetaker

Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Learning 100

Marketplace > California State University Long Beach > Psychlogy > 100 > Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Learning
Stephanie Notetaker
Long Beach State

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About this Document

These notes cover the entire Chapter 6.
General Psychology
Dr. Angela deDios
Class Notes
psychology 100
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Tuesday, March 8, y Chapter 6 Learning Classical Conditioning (3 stages) Form a  Conditioned Emotional Response Principles of Classical Conditioning ­ Acquisition 1 Tuesday, March 8, y Generalization and Discrimination ­ Stimulus generalization                         — Stimulus discrimination Extinction ­ Diminished response (CR) ­ How would you do this? ­ Extinction ≠ unlearning • Spontaneous recovery  2 Tuesday, March 8, y Higher-Order Conditioning Classical Conditioning VS. Operant Conditioning ­ Classical conditioning • Automatic response • Cannot control ­ Operant conditioning  • Voluntary behavior + consequence Operant Conditioning Thornlike ­ ’s law of effect • Rewarded behavior ➡ repeated 3 Tuesday, March 8, y • Not rewarded (or punished) behavior ➡ not repeated What is Reinforcement? Always increases the likelihood that the behavior will happen again. ­ Primary reinforcers          — Conditioned  reinforcers ­ Positive reinforcement                   — Negative reinforcement 4 Tuesday, March 8, y Positive and Negative Reinforcement ­ Always  increases the likelihood of the response being repeated Negative reinforcement  ­ ≠ punishment What is Punishment? ­ Primary punishers                     — Conditioned punishers                          ­ Positive punishment                     — Negative punishment  Punishment 5 Tuesday, March 8, y ­ A lot of potential r bad ­ Use of reinforcement is more effective  • Punishment: what not to do • Reinforcement: what to do  ­ Consider extinguishing bad behavior (operant: when a behavior used to be  reinforced/ stop reinforcing and the behavior goes away) Principles of Operant Conditioning ­ Shaping ­ Extinction * ­ Schedules of reinforcement  ­ Superstition  Shaping ­ How do we teach complex behavior? 6 Tuesday, March 8, y ­ We shape it through successive approximations  Extinction ­ Stop a behavior that was previously rein forced  ­ How could you do that? ­ How is this different from extinction in classical conditioning?  Schedules of Reinforcement ­ Continuous reinforcement ­ Partial reinforcement ­ How does this affect learning? ­ How does this affect extinction? Partial Reinforcement Schedules Ratio ­ • Fixed­ratio • Variable­ratio ­ Interval  7 Tuesday, March 8, y • Fixed­interval • Variable­interval Schedules of Reinforcement ­ Fixed­ratio schedule • Loyalty punch cards ­ Variable­ratio schedule • Slot machines ­ Fixed­interval schedule • Checking mail Variable interval schedule  ­ • Checking email ­ How does this affect behavior? Superstition ­ Started with accidental  reinforcement 8 Tuesday, March 8, y ­ Maintained by confirmation bias Applications of Operant Conditioning ­ Clear directions and feedback ­ Timing is everything ­ Be consistent ­ Consequences AFTER behavior  ­ Combo it up! • Reinforce good behavior • Extinguish bad behavior • Punish really bad behavior  Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning ­ Associative learning Use same language ­ ­ Classical conditioning  • Automatic response • Cannot control Operant conditioning  ­ • Voluntary behavior + consequence 9 Tuesday, March 8, y Behaviorism ­ Cannot know internal state Focus on observab ­ le behaviors ­ But is that all? ­ Cognitive­social learning  10


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