Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Learning
Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Learning 100
Long Beach State
Popular in General Psychology
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Tuesday, March 8, y Chapter 6 Learning Classical Conditioning (3 stages) Form a Conditioned Emotional Response Principles of Classical Conditioning Acquisition 1 Tuesday, March 8, y Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus generalization — Stimulus discrimination Extinction Diminished response (CR) How would you do this? Extinction ≠ unlearning • Spontaneous recovery 2 Tuesday, March 8, y Higher-Order Conditioning Classical Conditioning VS. Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning • Automatic response • Cannot control Operant conditioning • Voluntary behavior + consequence Operant Conditioning Thornlike ’s law of effect • Rewarded behavior ➡ repeated 3 Tuesday, March 8, y • Not rewarded (or punished) behavior ➡ not repeated What is Reinforcement? Always increases the likelihood that the behavior will happen again. Primary reinforcers — Conditioned reinforcers Positive reinforcement — Negative reinforcement 4 Tuesday, March 8, y Positive and Negative Reinforcement Always increases the likelihood of the response being repeated Negative reinforcement ≠ punishment What is Punishment? Primary punishers — Conditioned punishers Positive punishment — Negative punishment Punishment 5 Tuesday, March 8, y A lot of potential r bad Use of reinforcement is more effective • Punishment: what not to do • Reinforcement: what to do Consider extinguishing bad behavior (operant: when a behavior used to be reinforced/ stop reinforcing and the behavior goes away) Principles of Operant Conditioning Shaping Extinction * Schedules of reinforcement Superstition Shaping How do we teach complex behavior? 6 Tuesday, March 8, y We shape it through successive approximations Extinction Stop a behavior that was previously rein forced How could you do that? How is this different from extinction in classical conditioning? Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement How does this affect learning? How does this affect extinction? Partial Reinforcement Schedules Ratio • Fixedratio • Variableratio Interval 7 Tuesday, March 8, y • Fixedinterval • Variableinterval Schedules of Reinforcement Fixedratio schedule • Loyalty punch cards Variableratio schedule • Slot machines Fixedinterval schedule • Checking mail Variable interval schedule • Checking email How does this affect behavior? Superstition Started with accidental reinforcement 8 Tuesday, March 8, y Maintained by confirmation bias Applications of Operant Conditioning Clear directions and feedback Timing is everything Be consistent Consequences AFTER behavior Combo it up! • Reinforce good behavior • Extinguish bad behavior • Punish really bad behavior Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning Associative learning Use same language Classical conditioning • Automatic response • Cannot control Operant conditioning • Voluntary behavior + consequence 9 Tuesday, March 8, y Behaviorism Cannot know internal state Focus on observab le behaviors But is that all? Cognitivesocial learning 10
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