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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
MENTAL IMAGERY What is a mental image? 1. mental representation of an object or event that is not perceptually present. 2. internallygenerated (topdown), perceptionlike representation versus hallucinations? Ongoing controversy: Are mental images simply (1) epiphenomena (byproducts), or do they (2) have functional significance? (1)Propositional Hypothesis (Pylyshyn all information is coded and stored in the form of propositions (abstract languagelike representations) propositional form; images are [epiphenomena] generated from propositions. (2) Analog Code (Pictorial Representation) Hypothesis (Shepard; Kosslyn) imagery and perception are similar; visual images are like “mental pictures”. Mental images and percepts are not identical but we can sometimes use mental images like we use real images (percepts). Research “results indicate that mental imagery is remarkably able to substitute for actual perception(Roger Shepard) Effects associated with perception are also found in imagery. Images seem helpful or necessary for solving some problems (e.g., mental clock problems) Supported by the existence of hallucinations …. So why don’t we confuse images and percepts more often “Japanese abacus experts … use interiorized representations of the abacus that allow them to mentally calculate without an abacus as accurately as with an abacus, and often faster” (Rogoff, 1990) Imagery Research [overall, it supports the Analog Code Hypothesis; most research has studied visual imagery] A. Mental Rotation (Shepard): timed same/different judgments for pairs of rotated letters and depictions of 3D obj cts Original mental rotation task recorded how long it took people to determine whether pairs of 3d objects were identical RT was higly correlated with the degree of rotation, as if the Participant’s were viewing rotation objects and waiting for enough rotation so that they could be matched or compares, Participant’s apparently perform this task by rotating one object until it can be viewed from the dame perspective as the reference figure Mean RT increases with degrees of rotation RT is a linear function of amount of transformation (degrees of rotation) required Sex Differences?: o B. Mental Paper Folding (Shepard): “Do 2 edges meet?” When folding a pattern into a cube do the marked edges meet? RT = f(number of "folds" required) C. Image Sizing (Kosslyn) relative size of mental and sensory images is similar Faster sentence verification for larger images (apples are round, tigers have stripes_0 D. Internal Psychophysics – people take longer making decisions about mental objects when they are more similar to each other. 1. Symbolic Distance Effect (Moyer When asked which of 2 animals is larger, takes longer when animals are a similar size. (ex: which is larger mouse or chipmunk vs elephant or rabbit) 2. Mental Clocks (Paivi –we take longer to judge angle of hands on (imaged) clocks when hands are close together. Ex hands closer at 6 or 3:10…. 5:30 or 7:15 E. Selective Interference : Within modality > Crossmodality e.g visual + visual > visual + auditory Holds for both 2 percepts and for images + percepts F. Image Scanning (Kosslyn time required for scanning mental and sensory images is similar: increased ‘distance’ increased RT (even though eyes closed during imaging) Experimenter Expectancy effect? (see textbook, p. 217) G. Neuropsychology (1) brain damage sometimes produces parallel impairments in imagery & perception e.g., recognizing and visualizing faces (2) neuroimaging “many common neural processes underlie perception and depictive imagery” (Kosslyn & Thompson, 200 ) ex: a region of the occipitotemporal cortex called the fusiform face area is activated both when we see faces and also when we imagine them Eidetic Imagery? a mental image that is so vivid and clear that is is as if it is actually perceived edetikers (people with edetic imagery) are usually chiodlren and have images of limited duration “photographis memory”= [accurate + detailed + LTM] Very little evidence for true “photographic memory” and some of this is suspect.
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