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Psych 3330

by: Jaya Brown

Psych 3330 Psyc 3330

Jaya Brown
GPA 3.61

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About this Document

Notes from lecture
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Alley
Class Notes
psychology cognitive
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
MENTAL IMAGERY What is a mental image? 1. mental representation of an object or event that is not perceptually present.   2. internally­generated (top­down), perception­like representation  versus hallucinations? Ongoing controversy: Are mental images simply  (1) epiphenomena (by­products), or do they  (2) have functional significance?   (1)Propositional Hypothesis  (Pylyshyn ­ all information is coded and stored in the form  of propositions (abstract language­like representations) propositional form; images are  [epiphenomena] generated from propositions. (2) Analog Code (Pictorial Representation) Hypothesis  (Shepard; Kosslyn)  imagery  and perception are similar; visual images are like “mental pictures”.  Mental images and  percepts are not identical but we can sometimes use mental images like we use real  images (percepts).    Research “results indicate that mental imagery is remarkably able to substitute for  actual perception(Roger Shepard)   Effects associated with perception are also found in imagery.   Images seem helpful or necessary for solving some problems (e.g., mental clock  problems) Supported by the existence of hallucinations …. So why don’t we confuse images and percepts more often “Japanese abacus experts … use interiorized representations of the abacus that allow them to mentally calculate without an abacus as accurately as with an abacus, and often faster” (Rogoff, 1990) Imagery Research [overall, it supports the Analog Code Hypothesis; most research has studied visual imagery] A. Mental Rotation  (Shepard): timed same/different judgments for pairs of rotated  letters and depictions of 3­D obj cts  Original mental rotation task recorded how long it took people to determine  whether pairs of 3d objects were identical  RT was higly correlated with the degree of rotation, as if the Participant’s were viewing rotation objects and waiting for enough rotation so that they could be matched or compares, Participant’s apparently perform this task by rotating one object until it can be viewed from the dame perspective as the reference figure  Mean RT increases with degrees of rotation  RT is a linear function of amount of transformation (degrees of rotation) required  Sex Differences?: o B. Mental Paper Folding  (Shepard):  “Do 2 edges meet?” When folding a pattern into a cube do the marked edges meet?  RT = f(number of "folds" required) C. Image Sizing  (Kosslyn)   relative size of mental and sensory images is similar   Faster sentence verification for larger images (apples are round, tigers have stripes_0 D. Internal Psychophysics  – people take longer making decisions about mental objects when they are more similar to each other. 1. Symbolic Distance Effect  (Moyer  When asked which of 2 animals is larger, takes  longer when animals are a similar size.  (ex: which is larger mouse or chipmunk vs  elephant or rabbit)  2. Mental Clocks  (Paivi –we take longer to judge angle of hands on (imaged) clocks  when hands are close together.     Ex hands closer at 6 or 3:10….  5:30 or 7:15   E. Selective Interference :   ­Within modality > Cross­modality   e.g visual + visual > visual + auditory  Holds for both 2 percepts  and for  images + percepts           F. Image Scanning  (Kosslyn ­ time required for scanning mental and sensory images is  similar: increased ‘distance’  increased RT  (even though eyes closed during imaging)  Experimenter Expectancy effect?  (see textbook, p. 217) G. Neuropsychology  (1) brain damage sometimes produces parallel impairments in imagery & perception  e.g., recognizing and visualizing faces  (2) neuroimaging   “many common neural processes underlie perception and depictive imagery” (Kosslyn & Thompson, 200 ) ex: a region of the occipito­temporal cortex called the fusiform face area is activated both when we  see faces and also when we imagine them  Eidetic Imagery? ­ a mental image that is so vivid and clear that is is as if it is actually perceived ­ edetikers (people with edetic imagery) are usually chiodlren and have images of limited duration  ­ “photographis memory”= [accurate + detailed + LTM] ­ Very little evidence for true “photographic memory” and some of this is suspect. 


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