PY 101 Chapter 7 Notes
PY 101 Chapter 7 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 7: Attention and Memory Feb. 18, 2016 I. Memory Memory: capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge Can be incomplete, biased, and distorted II. The Processing of Information Encoding Storage Retrieval Like a computer III. Memories and the Brain Lashley’s Mice: Equipotentiality He would teach the mice to run a maze Then take out a part of the mice’s brain Then found that the mice did not do as well He found that we use all parts of our brain that contribute to how we process memory Longterm potentiation Temporal Lobes and Hippocampus IV. Consolidation Have to reconsolidate every time Memories change over time because we unpack and repack a memory every time Tetris vs. PTSD V. Memories over time Three Stages: Sensory Memory o Perceptual traces o 1/3 of a second (how long we long we retain something) Shortterm (Working) Memory o 7+/2 (how much stuff we can hold) o Chunking LongTerm Memory o Primacy and recency o Repeated, deep, and useful info VI. Memory Storage Storage is based on meaning Maintenance rehearsal vs. elaborative rehearsal Levels of Processing Model More elaboration = richer memory VII. Schemas and Networks Schemas: Perception, organization, and processing Shaped by culture Network of Associations: semantic links Spreading activation – association See slide 8 VIII. Strategies Retrieval Cues Contextdependent memory Mnemonics IX. Forgetting Helps sort and use info PTSD (the inability to forget) and Persistence Method of Savings Transience, blocking, and absentmindedness X. Memory Distortion Bias: tend to recall past beliefs as consistent with current beliefs Cast yourself in favorable roles XI. Flashbulb Memories Where were you on 9/11? Can be distorted just like other memories Increased confidence does not equal increased accuracy XII. Source Misattribution Misremembering circumstances of a memory Source amnesia: where did you learn that? Cryptomnesia: believe memories are original XIII. Suggestibility Memories biased by misleading information Can implant memories of nonexistent objects Wording of questions can alter memories XIV. False Memories False information can distort or implant memories No difference between real and imagined Children are particularly susceptible Psychological Science Chapter 7 Memory • Memory: Capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge • Can be incomplete, biased, and distorted The Processing of Informa▯on • Three phases: – Encoding – Storage – Retrieval Memories and the Brain • Lashley’s Mice: Equipoten▯ality • Long-Term Poten▯a▯on • Temporal Lobes & Hippocampus Consolidation •Have to reconsolidate every ▯me – Memories changing over ▯me •Tetris vs. PTSD Memories Over Time • Three Stages: – Sensory memory • Perceptual traces • 1/3 of a second – Short-term (working) memory • 7+/- 2 • Chunking – Long-term memory • Primacy & Recency • Repeated, deep, and useful info Memory Storage • Storage is based on meaning • Maintenance rehearsal vs. elabora▯ve rehearsal • Levels of Processing Model – More elabora▯on = richer memory Schemas & Networks • Schemas: Percep▯on, organiza▯on, & processing • Shaped by culture • Network of Associa▯ons: seman▯c links –Spreading ac▯va▯on Strategies • Retrieval Cues – Context-Dependent Memory – Mnemonics Forge▯ng • Helps sort and use info –PTSD and Persistence • Method of Savings • Transience, blocking, and absentmindedness Memory Distor▯on • Bias: Tend to recall past beliefs as consistent with current beliefs –Cast yourself in favorable roles Flashbulb Memories • Where were you on 9/11? – Can be distorted just like other memories – Increased conﬁdence ≠ increased accuracy Source Misa▯ribu▯on • Misremembering circumstances of a memory – Source amnesia: Where did you learn that? – Cryptomnesia: Believe memories are original Sugges▯bility • Memories biased by misleading informa▯on • Can implant memories of nonexistent objects • Wording of ques▯ons can alter memories False Memories • False info can distort or implant memories • No diﬀerence between real and imagined • Children are par▯cularly suscep▯ble sour candy sugar bi▯er good taste tooth nice honey soda chocolate heart cake tart pie
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