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One Week of Notes March 1-3

by: Madeline Notetaker

One Week of Notes March 1-3 Biol 2230-001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biological Sciences > Biol 2230-001 > One Week of Notes March 1 3
Madeline Notetaker
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About this Document

These are the lecture notes from class this week on the immune system and the respiratory system.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Class Notes
immune system, Respiratory system, Anatomy & Physiology, Cummings
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
L YMPHOCYTE PRODUCTION „Produced by stem cells in red bone marrow „T cells become immunocompetent in thymus „Acquire receptors on surface to interact with specific antigens „B cells become immunocompetent in bone marrow L YMPHOCYTE PRODUCTION „Produced by stem cells in red bone marrow „T cells become immunocompetent in thymus „B cells become immunocompetent in bone marrow „Immunocompetent cells mature in secondary lymphoid organs L YMPHOCYTE PRODUCTION „Produced by stem cells in red bone marrow „T cells become immunocompetent in thymus „B cells become immunocompetent in bone marrow „Immunocompetent cells mature in secondary lymphoid organs „Not fully functional until bound with antigen ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS „Engulfs pathogen and presents its fragments as antigens Lymphocytes are in body but not active yet,become activated when they interact with antigen CELL-MEDIA TED IMMUNE REPSONSE ANTIGEN CHALLENGE „ First encounter between naïve immunocompetent lymphocyte and antigen „ naïve immunocompetent= one that is ready to interact with something but has not yet (become immunocompetent in primary lymph organ (thymus or bone marrow),proteins on surface are specific of cells to antigens) „ Antigen= anything with markers „ 2 pathways: 1. Humoral pathway (uses B cells) 2. Cell mediated pathway (usesT cells) PRIMAR Y HUMORAL RESPONSE (THE FIRST ENCOUNTER) „Antigens bind with surface receptors on naïve immunocompetent B lymphocyte „ Antigens are free floating in fluid/ plasma „ B lymphocyte becomes active! „Clonal selection occurs „ Copies of cell that has the markers needed for antigen are reproduced „Most clones become plasma cells which produce antibodies „ Antibodies attach to antigens and mark for destruction „Some clone cells become memory cells „ Wait for another infection in the future SECONDAR Y HUMORAL RESPONSE (EACH ADDITIONAL EXPOSURE ) „Same mechanism as primary „But First response takes about 7-10 days to reach Titer (concentration of antibodies) „Immune response faster „Much more rapid „Immune response lasts longer „Long longevity „Immune response more effective „Produces more antibodies SOURCES OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY „ Active „ Exposure to antigen (antigen activates B cells, which leads to antibodies) „ Passive „ Antibodies from a source other than us „ End up with them,but produces somewhere else „ Natural „ We had to be infected „ Ex:natural passive- mom’s antibodies are given to baby by breastfeeding or placenta „ Artificial „ Ex:Artificial passive- vaccine that injects antibodies „ Ex:artificial active- immunization that injects a dead own antibodiese your cells respond and produce ANTIBOD Y STRUCTURE „ Complex proteins „ Called immunoglobulins „ 4 subunits: „ Heavy chains „ 2 identical ones „ Light chains „ 2 identical ones „ Variable region „ The area that contains light chains „ Have antigen binding sites „ Determine what antigen it will bind to „ Constant region „ Area that contains the heavy chains „ Dictates how something will be destroyed „ Antigen-binding site CLASSES OFANTIBODIES *Most are monomers=single units „ IgD „ The receptor on the surface of the B lymphocytes „ IgG „ Most abundant of all antibodies „ Main antibody present in late primary response and secondary response „ Longer lag to production „ Can cross placenta „ Bind and activate complement proteins „ IgE „ Typically not that many „ Increase in people who have allergies „ Can bind to mast cells,which produce histamine CLASSES OFANTIBODIES „ IgD „ IgG „ IgE „ IgA „When two monomers are put together „4 receptor sites „Accumulate in mucus and other bodily secretions „Bind to antigens to prevent them from attaching to epithelial cells CLASSES OFANTIBODIES „ IgD „ IgG „ IgE „ IgA „ IgM „ 5 monomers attached „ 10 receptor sites „ First antibody secreted by plasma cells during primary immune response „ Diagnostic tool because can show if person had a recent infection „ Fix and activate complement „ Promote agglutination:antigens clump together causing other cells to flood to area ANTIBOD Y FUNCTIONS „ Formation of antigen-antibody complex „ Marking things! „ Provide site for binding of complement proteins „ At the constant region;once attached secrete perforins for lysing „ Block sites on pathogens „ So they cant bind with any other cells „ Called“neutralization” „ Cause clumping of antigen-containing cells „ To allow greater phagocytosis efficiency „ Cause clumping of soluble antigen molecules „ Precipitate them out of solution MONOCLONALANTIBODIES „Commercially produced antibodies called“monoclonal antibodies” „ Infect another organism like horse, they produce antibodies,collect them and use for treatment, research… CELL-MEDIA TED IMMUNE RESPONSE „Naïve immunocompetent T cell binds with antigen infected body cell „Co-stimulatory signals are present „Second binding also occurs „T cell is activated „occur) both of those things „Clones are produced „Clonal selection „memory cellsbecome T CELLS All T cells have glycoprotein surface markers that are attachment points for different antigens •  CD4 cells often called T4 cells, or helper T cells •  CD8 cells also called T8 cells ** difference is what they attach to!! T CELLACTIVA TORS „ Class I MHC protein- linked antigens „ Endogenous= produced by body „ All body cells are capable of cellscing MHC except red blood „ Ex:cancer,viral cells „ CD8 cells bind to it „ Class II MHC protein- linked antigens „ Exogenous=antigen part comes from foreign antigen „ Ex:phagocytic cells that engulf bacterium „ CD4 cells bind to it ANTIGEN BINDING „T cell antigen receptors bind to antigen-MHC complex „This alone doesn’t activateT cell CO-STIMULA TORS „T cell binding to other receptors onAPC, cytokines,interleukins „Each promotes a different response „Either facilitates or disables activation CELL-MEDIA TED IMMUNE RESPONSE „T cell binds with antigen infected body cell „Co-stimulatory signals are present „T cell is activated „Clones are produced „Some clones become memory cells TYPES OF T CELLS „CytotoxicT cells „CD8 cells „Directly attacks and kills cells with class I MHC „Will lyse and break cell up to destroy it TYPES OF T CELLS „HelperT cells „ A type of regulatory cell „Regulate activity of other cells „ CD4 cells binds to cell with class II MHC and is activatedà activates CD8 cells and B cells TYPES OF T CELLS „SuppressorT cells „Shuts off clonal selection à stops immune response „Cytokines or lysis chemicals (chemicals that activateT cells or that are sued to kill infected cells) activate suppressorT cells PRIMAR Y IMMUNE RESPONSE SUMMAR Y Need to know picture IMMUNE DISORDERS „3 groups: 1.  Immunodeficiencies:any condition that causes immune cells to behave abnormally (could be insufficient production or have enough but not working properly) 2.  Autoimmune diseases:when immune system attacks own body cells, lose ability to differentiate between self and antigens 3.  Hypersensitivities:immune system responds to things that normally aren't antigenic;when harmless cells activate immune responses (allergens) IMMUNODEFICIENCIES „ 2 types: 1.  Congenital= genetic, from birth 2.  Acquired „ Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) „Genetic disorder that fails to produce enoughT cells and also some enzymes that produce toxins IMMUNODEFICIENCIES „Acquired immunodeficiencies (AIDS) „Acquired from HIV virus that destroys helperT cells „A subsequent infection kills that person AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis (MS) „Destroys white matter in the brainà lose conductivity AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis „Myasthenia gravis „Immune cells attack any neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis „Myasthenia gravis „Graves’ disease „Immune system attacks thyroid gland „Symptom is bulging eyes AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis „Myasthenia gravis „Graves’ disease „Juvenile diabetes „Attack pancreatic cells that produce insulin AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis „Myasthenia gravis „Graves’ disease „Juvenile diabetes „Lupus „Attacks kidneys,heart, and lungs „Associated with skin lesions/butterfly rash AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES „Multiple sclerosis „Myasthenia gravis „Graves’ disease „Juvenile diabetes „Lupus „Rheumatoid arthritis „Attacks synovial membranes of joints HYPERSENSITIVITIES „Immediate/acute „ Ex:allergic to bee stings „ Causes anaphylaxis „ Systemic release of histamine which causes systemic vasodilationà drop in blood pressure that can be fatal „ Most severe „ Response occurs in seconds HYPERSENSITIVITIES „Subacute „Response takes a couple of hours before we see it „Ex:Transfusion reaction of blood HYPERSENSITIVITIES „Delayed „Response takes 1-3 days „Ex:Poison ivy reaction TRANSPLANTS If you get something that’s not own cell, body will attack. Autograft= transplant from one part of body to another (SAME PERSON) Isograft= transplant from identical twin, identical MHC allograft= transplant from someone different, look for closely related, potential rejection Xenograft= transplant from different species (ex: pig heart valves) Involves supplying oxygen and elimination carbon dioxide; Closely linked to cellular respiration RESPIRA TOR Y SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF RESPIRA TION „Pulmonary respiration „ of bodyt of air into and out „External respiration „ Exchange between capillaries and lung space „Gaseous transport „ Delivery of gas to tissues „ Circulation „Internal respiration „ Exchange between blood capillaries and tissues of body „ A circulatory function RESPIRA TOR YAPPARA TUS Pathway that air has to follow: Air moves in usually through nose (a second way is through mouth), trachea splits to each lung (bronchi= the split), split into secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles (microscopic), alveoli * Sites of exchange 1.  Conducting zone •  Everything that is before the respiratory bronchioles •  Moving air •  Air gets cleansed, pull pathogens, pollen, dust out, also humidifies/moistens air, and also warms air 2.  Respiratory zone •  Where gas exchange occurs between lungs and capillaries NOSE= NORMAL ENTR YWA Y „Only external structure of respiratory system! „Passageway „Warms and moistens „ By mucosa „Filters „ Hair collects big particulates „Resonating chamber „ Buzzing in sinus gives voice a tonal quality „ Not a respiratory function „Olfactory receptors „ Sensory receptors „ Not a respiratory function NASAL CAVITY „ External nares „Openings to nose „ Vestibule „Enlarged cavity „ Vibrissae „Stiff hair that lines vestibule „ Internal nares „Opening in back of nasal cavity „Point of constriction to slow air „ Paranasal sinuses „Hollowed portion of bones in skull „Help to lighten weight NASAL MUCOSAE (A MUCUS MEMBRANE ) „Olfactory mucosa „ Smell receptors „Respiratory mucosa „ Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE) „ Goblet cells- secrete mucus „ Mucous glands- also secrete mucus „ Serous glands- secrete enzymes „ Defensins- secretions that function as natural antibiotics (kill bacteria) „ Cilia- beating to make motion toward throat to make us cough PHAR YNX „=pathway that connects nasal and oral cavities to lower parts „Nasopharynx „ Made of PCCE „ Uvula-At back of oral cavity,closes off nasal cavity when swallowing „ Pharyngotympanic tubes- regulates inner ear pressure „Oropharynx „ Fauces- bend in oral cavity to give direction down „ Made of stratified squamous because food is rough „Laryngopharynx „ Stratified squamous „ Flap closes when swallowing LAR YNX „Made of rigid cartilage „Entrance into trachea „Provides open airway „Directs food and air „Produces voice „Where the buzzing originates VOCAL STRUCTURES „Vocal folds „2 sets of vocal folds that surround glottis „Vibrate when air comes out „Glottis „the opening that epiglottis covers „Vestibular folds „Can change diameter of opening and tension „Changes pitch of buzz TRACHEA „Rigid tube from neck to mediastinum „Made of C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage „ Back of rings has smooth muscle „Carina= the very last cartilage in trachea „ Forces a split into left and right lungs TRACHEAL LA YERS Cilia beat up toward throat to make us cough, 3 layers: mucosa, submucosa, adventitia BRONCHIAL 53&& „ Primary bronchi „ first branch „ Secondary bronchi „ 3 on right,2 on left „ Tertiary bronchi „ Carries air to segments of lobes „ Right lung has 10 segments „ Left has 8 or 9 „ Bronchioles „ Get smaller and smaller „ Terminal bronchioles „ Less than .5mm in diameter „ Respiratory bronchioles * Left lung has two lobes, right has three „ Microscopic LUNGS „Pleural cavities „Each lung is surrounded by sac „Cardiac notch „Allows heart to sit in „Lobes „Divided into segments „Alveoli (alveolar sacs) AL VEOLAR STRUCTURE „ 1 cell layer thick! „ Type I cells „ Simple squamous epithelial „ Pulmonary capillaries „ Blood capillaries surrounding alveoli „ Respiratory membrane „ simple;only has to pass across two membranes (type I cells and pulmonary capillaries) „ Type II cells „ Cuboidal cells „ reduces water surface tension tohat allow gas to cross) „ Alveolar pores „ Want lungs to be at same pressure „ Connections between alveoli „ Alveolar macrophages „ Remove antigens in air PLEURAE „ Parietal pleura „Serous membrane surrounding lungs „Lines thoracic cavity „ Visceral pleura „Immediate outside lining of lungs „ Pleural cavity „Filled with fluid „Between 2 layers „ Pleural fluids „Makes lungs expand as chest expands PULMONAR YVENTILA TION „Air follows a pressure gradient! „Consists of: „Inspiration= air moves into lungs „Expiration= air pushed out of lungs „Regulated by: „Pressure „Volume- regulates pressure „Resistance- little bit of friction, negligible „Surface tension- liquid resistance „Compliance- stretchiness of lungs; more compliant= more change in volume PRESSURES „Atmospheric- around us all the time „ 760 mmHg „Intrapulmonary- pressure inside lungs that changes when we breathe „ When its below atmospheric,air moves in „ When its higher than atmospheric,air moves out „Intrapleural- pressure in the pleural cavity „Transpulmonary- difference between intrapulmonary and intrapleural BOYLE’S LAW „Relationship between volume and pressure „ Remember:gas always expands to fill container „P V = P V 1 1 2 2 „ if we expand,lower pressure „ If we compress,increase pressure BREA THING •  A function of skeletal muscles: •  Respiratory diaphragm pulls down when contracts to increase volume of thoracic cavity, at same time intercostal muscles contract to lift chestà decreases pressure so air moves in RESPIRA TOR YVOLUMES „ Tidal volume „Normal amount of air moving in and out „.5 liter „ Inspiratory reserve volume „Excess volume we can pull in „Little over 3 liters „ Expiratory reserve volume „Excess amount we can force out „ Residual volume „Air that stays in lungs „Little over 1 liter „ Anatomical dead space „Air in conducting zone that’s not contributing to gas exchange „15 mL Spirograph


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