HY 104 Week 8 Notes
HY 104 Week 8 Notes HY 104
Popular in American Civ Since 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kari Frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see American Civ Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
HY 104 3/7/2016 Postwar Backlash and the Reactionary 1920s I. Economic reconversion See March 2 Notes II. Labor unrest See March 2 Notes III. “Red Scare” a. Why is there a fear of a radical menace? b. Attornery General A. Mitchell Palmer and the Palmer c. Immigration Restriction (Discussed on March 7, 2016) i. If this country is in danger, it is because we let in so many immigrants ii. National Origins Act: a set total of 164,000/year (no more); 2% of 1890 census Designed to cut back on the number of foreigners accepted per year Try to control who gets to come to United States Who is considered a “safe immigrant’? No Japanese whatsoever Chinese had been excluded since 1882 Who gets to come over depends on the 1890 census Cuts back on not only the number of people, but the type of people d. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Two Italian immigrants accused of murder Sacco was a security guard and a shoe cutter and labor organizer Vanzetti was a fish peddler Both were anarchists political radicals In 1920 they are accused of murder and their evidence was shaky. All the police could go off of was eye witness Convicted on their politics not so much their evidence This is seen as a political trial There are fundraisers for their defense, walks, tries to get a pardon, etc. They were executed in the electric chair Later, Vanzetti was in fact, innocent IV. Prohibition Also tied to fear of immigrants (if we take away their alcohol, maybe they will be less of a threat) Becomes part of the constitution a. Why did people support it? To eliminate corruption b. Role of World War I? It is the war that finally pushes prohibition into effect In war, using grain to make alcohol did not seem like a good use of materials People worried about servicemen drinking Huge failure c. Eighteenth Amendment ratified in 1919, goes into effect January 1920 d. Problem of enforcement Impossible to enforce It is very easy to get access to alcohol Cuba was a huge alcohol importer A lot of opportunity for illegal work (smuggling) Not highly trained enforcement agents The punishment wasn’t even that bad There were many ways to get alcohol, other than by smuggling: you could get it from the doctor. Every patient was allowed one quart of whiskey a month People bribe doctors People made their own lethal alcohol (wood alcohol 90% alcohol) People drank antifreeze, hair tonic, patent medicine (opium) There were places where alcohol was a way of life Eventually repealed because the Congress can gain money by taxing liquor V. Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan Flourished in the 1920 Reorganized in 1915 William Joseph Simons: wants it to be like a fraternal organization; he brought the KKK back up It soon became more than a “fraternal organization” Simons and friends climb Stone Mountain: i. A confederate carving is at the top ii. They light a fiery cross iii. A white, Christian fraternity iv. They use Protestant Christian ideals to “execute” people v. KKK harassed people who tried to keep men from enlisting: They did this with the approval of the Justice Simons expands his organization by hiring Public Relations people and advertising They tell him: there are a lot of Americans who hates drinking, Catholics, and etc., so the Klan should expand to believe those ideals In Alabama, the Klan becomes highly popular. It is no shame in the Mid1920s. It was a way to get elected In Alabama, the worry was how women were acting – smoking and straying from their gender roles If a woman has an affair, a Klan would visit you The Klan would terrorize women in the night if they thought the women were acting immorally. They would pull women from their house, strip them, and beat them with whatever they could find The Alabama Klan targeted women who were selling alcohol out of their house The Klan reaches its peak in the 1920s; it had about 5 million members A lot of the members were hypocrites (some support prohibition but were alcoholics) Trial and conviction of C.C. Stevenson a. Why did it prosper? The 1920s: The Era of Prosperity I. Election of 1920: Warren G. Harding (Republican) A desire to elect and antiWilson Harding was very different than Wilson Harding is from the state of Ohio Harding was a very friendly, likeable person; he has very few enemies Easily controlled by party leader Not a man of ideas Not a crusader “He just looked like a president” A “man’s man” They asked Harding if there was anything in his past that would come back to haunt him in the future of the campaign; he thought about it…he was having an affair but he thought “well, that’s in my present not my past” so he does not say anything He does have a child in office, out of wedlock Front porch campaign He did not campaign because he was not very smart He wins by a landslide II. Presidencies Harding and Calvin Coolidge Coolidge succeeds Harding Compare their political ideas to Progressives Harding, Coolidge, Hoover supported a rather “small” government Believe government should stay out of business Governments role is to make sure business runs smoothly Business taxes should be cut, tariffs should be high (protects American business) “The business of America is business” – Coolidge III. Was this an era of prosperity? How accurate is that characterization? Americans stop fighting, stop reforming and just live (characterization of prosperity) It was in fact a prosperous time The economy grew People working in factories saw in increase of 20% in outcome Inflation is generally low The cost of goods/services stay about the same Unemployment was fairly low Most everyone’s income was rising IV. Who/what was responsible for prosperity in the 1920s? What were the consequences? See March 9 Notes a. Probusiness Republican policies Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury Cut taxes for the wealthy, businesses, and inheritance Revenue Act of 1926 authored by Mellon Cuts taxes of the wealthiest Americans hoping they will reinvest their money, which they do not b. Technology See March 9 Notes c. Improved marketing and advertising See March 9 Notes HY 104 3/9/2016 The 1920s: The Era of Prosperity I. Election of 1920: Warren G. Harding (Republican) See March 7 Notes II. Presidencies of Harding and Calvin Coolidge See March 7 Notes III. Was this an era of prosperity? How accurate is that characterization? See March 7 Notes IV. Who/what was responsible for prosperity in the 1920s? What were the consequences? It let to a “dovetailing” By handing poor people money, it is harming them and their ability to work Christian Theology was used for salesmanship a. Probusiness Republican Policies 1) Andrew Mellon, Secretary of Treasury 2) Revenue Act of 1926 See March 7 Notes b. Technology Promoted prosperity Mass production techniques Assembly lines c. Improved marketing and advertising Promoted prosperity Muckrakers began working for advertising agencies “Keep up with the Jones’” 1. Advertising becomes much more personable and colorful 2. Advertising used to only focus on the product and what it could do, but advertising now focused on people and their desires 3. Advertising was seductive 4. In the refrigerator advert #2, the refrigerator is full 5. Listerine advert #1: very factual 6. Listerine advert #2: does not even show the product it tells a story below the image. This ad suggested to be social acceptable, one needed good breath 7. Advertising was playing on people’s insecurities d. Credit Credit Sales Buying things on layaway Or, actual use of credit cards One way to move things off the shelf was by forcing demand, but now there is a credit card This was important when it came to buying automobiles Consequences come with credit 1. Eventually, you max out your credit card 2. So now the money you make is not going to buying new things but to paying off a credit card balance
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