Zoology Chapter 9: Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa
Zoology Chapter 9: Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa Bio 106
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Zoology in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 9 Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa Cambrian explosion greatest evolutionary bang caused all major phyla to be established Kingdom Animalia Phyla Phoronida Ectoprocta and Brachiopoda possess lophophore Brachiopoda more abundant during Paleozoic era declined after Ectoprocta arose during Cambrian period lophotrochozoan protostomes Lophophore a crown of ciliated tentacles borne on the ridge or fold of the body wall used to capture food and respiration cavity inside is part of coelom and filled with coelomic fluid 0 thin walls act as respiratory surface for exchange of gases between external water and coelomic fluid 0 Can be used for protection when withdrawn 0 Circular in marine ectoprocts and Ushaped in freshwater species Captures food by extending lophophore and tentacles traps food particles in mucus of funnel and draws food to mouth in the lophophore ring by contracting the pharynx and cilia Trochophore freeswimming feeding larval stage having a prototroch in front of the mouth Prototroch a ring of large ciliated cells used for locomotion and maybe feeding Libbie Henrietta vaan author of The Invertebrates covers protozoan groups thlooenetic information Clade Polyzoa Phyla Ectoprocta Entoprocta Cycliophora Clade 1Trochozoa Clade 2 Kryptrochozoa Clade 3 Brachiopoda Phyla Brachiopoda Phoronida Phylum Cycliophora Dec 1995 P Funch and RM Kristensen discovered Symbion pandora clinging to the mouthparts of Nephrops norvegicus Norway lobsters became first members of phylum Habitat mouthparts of marine decapod crustaceans in Northern hemisphere Attach to bristles on mouthparts with adhesive discs on end of acellular stalk Feed by collecting bacteria or bits of food from host Simple body plan Ushaped gut w mouth and anus Acoelomate Cellular epidermis surrounded by cuticle Complex life cycle asexual cloning to fill vacant mouthparts sexual male larvae are made and attach to feeding stages that contain female larvae Produced larvae swim to new lobster hosts Phylum Entoprocta Differ from hydroid cnidarians in which their tentacles are ciliated and tend to roll inward o Microscopic All stalked and sessile Some colonial some solitary Ciliary feeders Except for 1 genus marine from polar to tropic regions restricted to coastal and brackish waters ie underside rocks Body Ushaped gut with mouth and anus open within circle or tentacles Feeding captures food in currents by tentacular cilia and passes it to the mouth 0 No circulatory or respiratory organs have protonephridia Monoecious diecious and hermaphrodites Phylum Ectoprocta bryozoansmoss animals Aquatic freshwater and marine mostly shallow Most are colony builders abundant and widespread Each member of a colony occupies a zoecium Zoecium cuticle shell secreted by epidermis possess many shapes and physical states Each individual zooid comprises a feeding polypide and cystid Polypide a zooid that possess a lophophore digestive tract muscles and nerve centers lives by popping up for feeding and then quickly withdrawing to inner chambers through operculum Cystidthe body wall of the animal together with the exoskeleton zoecium the dead secreted outer part plus adherent underlying living layers Respiratory vascular and excretory organs absent 0 Gas exchanges through body s surface through coelomic fluid for internal transport coelomocytes engulf waste materials Hermaphroditic o Radial cleavage Brown bodies remnants of lophophore and digestive tract of a degenerating adult ectoproct that are left behind for a new lophophore and digestive tract to form Freshwater species produce both sexaully and asexually Asexually budding or statoblasts Statoblasts hard resistant capsules containing a mass of germ cells that form during summer and fall released in fall and rise in spring Phylum Brachiopoda lamp shells Classes Articulata lnarticulata Genus Lingua Population is declining Attached bottomdwelling marine forms that mostly prefer shallow water Has 2 calcareous shell valves secreted by a mantle Dorsalbrachialsmaller and ventralpedicellarger valves 0 Can attach to substrate directly or by pedicel fleshy stalk Class Articulata connected by a hinge with an interlocking tooth and socket arrangement articular process 2 coelomic cavities Class lnarticulata lack the hinge and only held together by muscles 3 coelomic cavities Body occupies posterior region bn valves forms mantle lobes through body wall extensions Ushaped gut Lophophore feeding process Circulatory system is open w contractile heart Nerve ring w small dorsal and larger ventral cavities ganglion are present 0 Separate sexes with similar to deuterostome formation Phylum Phoronida 10 species of small wormlike animals Habitat ocean floor substrates under shallow coastal water Feeding tentacle lophophore retrocurved Each worm secretes a leathery or chitinous tube which anchors into rocks and sand Mouth inside lophophore ring Anus outside Mesenteries divides coelomic cavity into 3 parts 0 Closed circulatory system no heart contractile blood vessels Metanephridia excretory gland Nerve ring to send nerves to tentacles and body wall Monoecious majority and diecious 1 species asexual Radial and spiral cleavage Phylum Nemertea Rhynchocoela ribbon worms Genus Amphiporus threadribbon shaped predatory worms Unerring aim of the proboscis that quickly thrusts out to capture prey o Proboscis lies within rhynchocoel which lies above the digestive tract within the mesoderm true coelom o Marine Body ciliated epidermis w layers of circular and longitudinal muscles 0 Movement gliding over slime track small species muscular contractions larger species Mouth anterior and ventral Complete digestive system Carnivorous feeding on mostly annelids Circulatory system Flamebulb protonephridia serves as a excretory system Nervous system Pair of nerve ganglia multiple longitudinal nerve cords connected by transverse nerves
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