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Sociology Week 4 Notes

by: Ariel Kamen

Sociology Week 4 Notes soci 243

Marketplace > Towson University > Liberal Arts > soci 243 > Sociology Week 4 Notes
Ariel Kamen

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About this Document

These are the notes that we went over this week in class.
sociology, race, class and gender
Miho Iwata
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 243 at Towson University taught by Miho Iwata in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see sociology, race, class and gender in Liberal Arts at Towson University.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
3/1/16                           sm Hits The Fan By Rick Wolff • declining manufacturing sector ­ declining in wages for the working class • success measured by the amount of consumption • increased workforce ­ employers can pay less • … .instead of paying workers a wage, lend them the money = even more profit • increasing power of the rich ­ influence over policy makers Basic Concepts Sex = the biological differences  Gender = the social and cultural meanings attached to femininity and masculinity  Gendered/gendering = differentiation of women’s and men’s behaviors, activities and worth Women and Men Are Differentiated and Ranked • gender stratification: ranking of the sexes in such a way that women are unequal in power,  resources, and opportunities Social Bases for Gender Roles • society transforms females and males into socially interacting women and men The Politics of Differences of Domination • individual boys and girls become gendered ­ we learn the  “appropriate” behaviors and traits that  are associated with hegemonic masculinity and exaggerated femininity  • social institutions are also gendered ­ and the dominant definitions are reinforced and  reproduced in the institutions • assuming institutionally gender neutrality actually serves to maintain the gender politics of those institutions Gender and Power • gendered institution ­ entire institutions are patterned by gender (men are in power) •  male dominance  • patriarchy  • compulsory heterosexuality = hoteronormativity What Causes Gender Inequality Gender Role Approach    ­ socialization of gender Gender Structure Approach     ­ external social structures Gender Role Approach •  children at home • formal education   ­ curriculum   ­ textbooks   ­ teacher—student interactions   ­ sports   ­ female role models Gender Structure Approach How gender is elaborated in: • language • interpersonal behavior • mass communications media  • religion Costs and Consequences of Sexism Who benefits? • capitalists make more money by paying women less than men 3/3/16                           The Social Construction of Gender by Lorber • Individual level • Gender is constantly created and recreated out of human interaction out of the social life, and is  the texture and order that social life  — were constantly “doing gender” • A sex category becomes a gender status through naming, dress, and the use of other gender  markers Lorber Continued •  — gender is one of the major ways that human beings organize  Gender as a social institution  their lives • Predictable division of labor, a designate allocation of scarce goods, assigned responsibility for  children and others common values etc. • Distinguishable social statuses for the assignment of rights and responsibilities  • Stratification ­ men above women of the same race and class ­ devaluation of  “women” •  Wage gap, positions of authority and leadership The Sexes by Fausto­Sterling • Intersexual ­ genital ambiguity in newborns, infants born with a mixture of both male and female  anatomy, or genitals that appear to differ from their chromosomal sex • Estimate: 1.7% of children • “remedies” ­ a gender assignment solely on the basis of what made the best surgical sense ­  Nature vs Nurture • Ethical framework necessary ­ various forms of intersexuality should be defined as normal Constructing Masculinity Through Penetration Discourse by Fair “fag and pussy pretty much mean the same thing” • High school male wrestlers ­ threat of being perceived as homosexual ( “fag”) = de­masculization • Alleged assosciation with  “less than the dominant/A­group”    ­ being homosexual = “being less than a man”    ­ being feminine/female = “being less than a man” • To reconstruct and sexure their masculinity, they engage in the  “penetration disco use” ­ the  linguistic and corporeal interconnections between misogyny, homophobia, and adolescents’  constructions of normative masculinity  • Degrade/put down others to secure their masculinity     ­ not fag, but pussy     ­ symbolic sexual penetration     ­ “feminity/women” as passive, weak, to be dominated Gender Recap • Gender = social construct •  A few differences between males and females based on biology • But ­ we become in response to the social forces relevant in the society  Discussion * Romantic desire/interests/attraction ­ inherent? As a result of socialization?


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