SOC 2010 Chapter 6 Notes
SOC 2010 Chapter 6 Notes Soc 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by kyle.gosland on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 2010 at Clemson University taught by Mary Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 6: Deviance Sanctions: repercussions for not following norms Deviance: action/trait that violates a norm Behaviors categorized as “deviant” are constructed by society, and relative to other places or times Normal in one place can be deviant somewhere else Normal at one time can be deviant at another (ex: slavery) Crime: deviant act against a specific law; violating means serious sanctions Structural Functionalism (Durkheim) Deviance helps to define norms and moral boundaries Promotes social cohesion (unites people through shared sense of right and wrong) Structural Strain Theory (R. Merton) Strain from society on individuals causes rule breaking behavior Caused by difference between society’s values and how people achieve those goals Crime has a function; makes up for differences in wealth Conflict Theory (Marx) Wealth, power, and prestige affect definitions of deviance Behaviors of elite less likely to be seen as criminal Minorities disproportionately labeled as deviant Rules and punishments not applies equally Symbolic Interactionism Everyday interactions affect social constructs Differential Association Theory (E. Sutherland) People learn to be deviant as a result of interacting with others Labeling Theory (H. Becker) Behaviors not inherently deviant, only when society labels them as deviant Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: labels can cause people to act with deviance Mass Incarceration Accelerated imprisonment rate Prison population from 300K to 2.2 million (1980-2014) US has highest incarceration rate in the world Systematic imprisonment of entire groups Policing, Class, Race Poor urban areas have higher crime rates Police focus more on urban neighborhoods Police providing security vs. being under constant supervision Poorer people are more likely to end up in prison People of color more likely to be imprisoned Men more likely to be imprisoned War on Drugs People of all classes and races use and sell drugs at similar rates War on Drugs (1970s) by government Focused on poor urban community Political strategy: way to get votes Felonies for nonviolent offense More arrests=more money for police department Unfair Sentencing Laws Non-violent drug offenses get harsher sentences, longer minimum sentences 1986: Congress passes 100:1 ratio between cocaine and crack 5-year sentence for 500g powder or 5g of crack Crack is cheaper than powder but still has harsher punishment 2010: Fair Sentencing Act reduced ratio to 18:1 2012: California made ratio equal. 1:1 Racial Profiling Using race/ethnicity to decide whether to engage in law enforcement action Trayvon Martin was poster child Felony Disenfranchisement Losing right to vote as a result of committing a felony Prison Myths (not actually true) Harsh sentences deter people from committing crimes Incarceration rates have paralleled crime rates Prisons keep us safe Types of Deviant People Innovators: accept society’s goals but not the societal methods to get there Ritualists: gave up hope of achieving society’s goals but still follow society’s approved methods Retreatists: reject both societal goals and accepted ways to achieve them Rebels: reject approved goals and methods; use new methods to achieve new goals Social Control: mechanisms used to create conformity to social norms and values in order to promote social cohesion Passing: presenting oneself as part of a different group than the stigmatized group you actually belong to Deviance Avowal: individual self identifies as deviant and purposely goes out of their way to get labeled Types of Crime Violent Crime: murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery Property Crime: burglary, property theft, motor vehicle theft, arson White Collar Crime: committed by a person with a high status in their occupation
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